Cordia elaeagnoides is locally important within a large area of southern México as a highly gregarious canopy tree of dry forest and as a timber species. Its recruitment is problematic so studies of its reproduction and population dynamics were undertaken. The distylous flowers are apparently self-compatible, and pollination and seed dispersal are by wind. Pre-dispersal mortality is largely from embryo abortion, and post-dispersal predation is mostly by generalist rodents. Some seeds may survive in enforced dormancy for two or more years. Recruitment was apparently absent for more than a decade, but had previously occurred within established stands, where size classes were interspersed at random. Population size structure suggests that recruitment over the last century occurred in several pulses. Growth rates determined from ring counts and remeasurement of marked trees support a size-age relationship. The youngest reproductive trees are estimated to be about 18 years old, and about 5% of the present population is over 95 years old.