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Surface melt on the coastal Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) determines the viability of its ice shelves and the stability of the grounded ice sheet, but very few in situ melt rate estimates exist to date. Here we present a benchmark dataset of in situ surface melt rates and energy balance from nine sites in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica, seven of which are located on AIS ice shelves. Meteorological time series from eight automatic and one staffed weather station (Neumayer), ranging in length from 15 months to almost 24 years, serve as input for an energy-balance model to obtain consistent surface melt rates and energy-balance results. We find that surface melt rates exhibit large temporal, spatial and process variability. Intermittent summer melt in coastal DML is primarily driven by absorption of shortwave radiation, while non-summer melt events in the eastern AP occur during föhn events that force a large downward directed turbulent flux of sensible heat. We use the in situ surface melt rate dataset to evaluate melt rates from the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2 and validate a melt product from the QuikSCAT satellite.
Philosophy of technology only came into existence as a specialist branch of professional philosophy during the 1970s, although the philosophical literature during the years between 1945 and the 1970s voices an increasing preoccupation with technology. Just as the First World War led to a wave of disillusionment among intellectuals as well as the common man, so did the Second World War. This disillusionment manifested itself as pessimism, which became characteristic of several influential philosophers during the two first decades after the war. We find it echoed, for instance, in Gabriel Marcel’s The Decline of Wisdom (1954), where Marcel describes the “horror and anxiety” he felt walking through “the ruins of Vienna in 1946, or more recently in Caen, Rouen or Würzburg” (21). But the 1970s, with growing social prosperity, industrial growth, and better technologies, changed that sentiment. The development of a professional philosophy of technology has, after the 1960s, developed along two different yet familiar trajectories: one into an analytical philosophy of technology and science, the other into a Continental (or more broadly humanities-oriented) philosophy of technology (see also Thomson, this volume).
This article synthesises the results of a large international study on primary care (PC), the QUALICOPC study.
Since the Alma Ata Declaration, strengthening PC has been high on the policy agenda. PC is associated with positive health outcomes, but it is unclear how care processes and structures relate to patient experiences.
Survey data were collected during 2011–2013 from approximately 7000 PC physicians and 70 000 patients in 34, mainly European, countries. The data on the patients are linked to data on the PC physicians within each country and analysed using multilevel modelling.
Patients had more positive experiences when their PC physician provided a broader range of services. However, a broader range of services is also associated with higher rates of hospitalisations for uncontrolled diabetes, but rates of avoidable diabetes-related hospitalisations were lower in countries where patients had a continuous relationship with PC physicians. Additionally, patients with a long-term relationship with their PC physician were less likely to attend the emergency department. Capitation payment was associated with more positive patient experiences. Mono- and multidisciplinary co-location was related to improved processes in PC, but the experiences of patients visiting multidisciplinary practices were less positive. A stronger national PC structure and higher overall health care expenditures are related to more favourable patient experiences for continuity and comprehensiveness. The study also revealed inequities: patients with a migration background reported less positive experiences. People with lower incomes more often postponed PC visits for financial reasons. Comprehensive and accessible care processes are related to less postponement of care.
The study revealed room for improvement related to patient-reported experiences and highlighted the importance of core PC characteristics including a continuous doctor–patient relationship as well as a broad range of services offered by PC physicians.
West Antarctic climate and surface mass balance (SMB) records are sparse. To fill this gap, regional atmospheric climate modelling is useful, providing that such models are employed at sufficiently high horizontal resolution and coupled with a snow model. Here we present the results of a high-resolution (5.5 km) regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2) simulation of coastal West Antarctica for the period 1979–2015. We evaluate the results with available in situ weather observations, remote-sensing estimates of surface melt, and SMB estimates derived from radar and firn cores. Moreover, results are compared with those from a lower-resolution version, to assess the added value of the resolution. The high-resolution model resolves small-scale climate variability invoked by topography, such as the relatively warm conditions over ice-shelf grounding zones, and local wind speed accelerations. Surface melt and SMB are well reproduced by RACMO2. This dataset will prove useful for picking ice core locations, converting elevation changes to mass changes, for driving ocean, ice-sheet and coupled models, and for attributing changes in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and shelves to changes in atmospheric forcing.
Mass changes of polar ice sheets have an important societal impact, because they affect global sea level. Estimating the current mass budget of ice sheets is equivalent to determining the balance between surface mass gain through precipitation and outflow across the grounding line. For the Antarctic ice sheet, grounding line outflow is governed by oceanic processes and outlet glacier dynamics. In this study, we compute the mass budget of major outlet glaciers in the eastern Dronning Maud Land sector of the Antarctic ice sheet using the input/output method. Input is given by recent surface accumulation estimates (SMB) of the whole drainage basin. The outflow at the grounding line is determined from the radar data of a recent airborne survey and satellite-based velocities using a flow model of combined plug flow and simple shear. This approach is an improvement on previous studies, as the ice thickness is measured, rather than being estimated from hydrostatic equilibrium. In line with the general thickening of the ice sheet over this sector, we estimate the regional mass balance in this area at 3.15 ± 8.23 Gt a−1 according to the most recent SMB model results.
In this paper, we use formal asymptotic arguments to understand the stability properties of equivariant solutions to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert model for ferromagnets. We also analyse both the harmonic map heatflow and Schrödinger map flow limit cases. All asymptotic results are verified by detailed numerical experiments, as well as a robust topological argument. The key result of this paper is that blowup solutions to these problems are co-dimension one and hence both unstable and non-generic.
Hospitalization of nursing home residents can be futile as well as costly, and now evidence indicates that treating nursing home residents in place produces better outcomes for some conditions. We examined facility organizational characteristics that previous research showed are associated with potentially avoidable hospital transfers and with better care quality. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of nursing home directors of care in Vancouver Coastal Health, a large health region in British Columbia. The survey addressed staffing levels and organization, physician access, end-of-life care, and factors influencing facility-to-hospital transfers. Many of the modifiable organizational characteristics associated in the literature with potentially avoidable hospital transfers and better care quality are present in nursing homes in British Columbia. However, their presence is not universal, and some features, especially the organization of physician care and end-of-life planning and services, are particularly lacking.
Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms, from genes to the biosphere. The value of biodiversity is multifold, from preserving the integrity of the biosphere as a whole, to providing food and medicines, to spiritual and aesthetic well-being.
One of the major drivers of biodiversity loss in Europe is atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr).
This chapter focuses on Nr impacts on European plant species diversity; in particular, the number and abundance of different species in a given area, and the presence of characteristic species of sensitive ecosystems.
We summarise both the scientific and the policy aspects of Nr impacts on diversity and identify, using a range of evidence, the most vulnerable ecosystems and regions in Europe.
Key findings/state of knowledge
Reactive nitrogen impacts vegetation diversity through direct foliar damage, eutrophication, acidification, and susceptibility to secondary stress.
Species and communities most sensitive to chronically elevated Nr deposition are those that are adapted to low nutrient levels, or are poorly buffered against acidification. Grassland, heathland, peatland, forest, and arctic/montane ecosystems are recognised as vulnerable habitats in Europe; other habitats may be vulnerable but are still poorly studied.
It is not yet clear if different wet-deposited forms of Nr (e.g. nitrate, NO3− versus ammonium, NH4+) have different effects on biodiversity. However, gaseous ammonia (NH3) can be particularly harmful to vegetation, especially lower plants, through direct foliar damage.
Observations of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition are severely restricted in spatial extent and type. The chain of processes leading to atmospheric deposition emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformation and eventual loss from the atmosphere is extremely complex and therefore currently, observations can only address part of this chain.
Modelling provides a way of estimating atmospheric transport and deposition of Nr at the European scale. A description of the different model types is provided.
Current deposition estimates from models are compared with observations from European air chemistry monitoring networks.
The main focus of the chapter is at the European scale; however, both local variability and and intercontinental Nr transfers are also addressed.
Key findings/state of knowledge
Atmospheric deposition is a major input of Nr for European terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems as well as coastal sea areas.
Models are key tools to integrate our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and transport, and are essential for estimating the spatial distribution of deposition, and to support the formulation of air pollution control strategies.
Our knowledge of the reliability of models for deposition estimates is, however, limited, since we have so few observational constraints on many key parameters.
Total Nr deposition estimates cannot be directly assessed because of a lack of measurements, especially of the Nr dry deposition component. Differences among European regional models can be significant, however, e.g. 30% in some areas, and substantially more than this for specific locations.
To reduce the uncertainty in the calculation of Antarctic solid ice fluxes, the firn depth correction (Δh) in Antarctica is inferred from a steady-state firn densification model forced by a regional atmospheric climate model. The modelled density agrees well with observations from firn cores, apart from a site at the origin of fast flowing West Antarctic ice stream (Upstream B), where densification is anomalously rapid. The spatial distribution of Δh over Antarctica shows large variations, especially in the grounding line zone where large climate gradients exist. In places where the grounding line crosses ablation areas, Δh is zero. Along the remainder of the grounding line, Δh values range from typically 13 m in dry coastal areas (e.g. Dronning Maud Land) to 19 m in wet coastal areas (e.g. West Antarctica).
The work of the English Deist Thomas Morgan (d. 1743), a Marcion in his time, received much negative criticism in England and abroad, especially in Germany. His views aroused comments in books, dissertations and journals. Only in the first half of the twentieth century was he to be praised by theologians such as Adolf von Harnack and Emanuel Hirsch, who likewise disparaged the Old Testament.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a common metabolic disorder. DM2 is
associated with cognitive impairments, and with depressive symptoms, which
occur in about one third of patients. In the current study we compared the
cognitive profile and psychological well-being of 119 patients with DM2
(mean age: 66 ± 6; mean duration: 9 ± 6 years) with 55 age
and education matched-control participants. Groups were compared on
cognitive performance in five major cognitive domains, psychological
wellbeing [assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90-R and the Beck
Depression Inventory (BDI-II)] and abnormalities on brain MRI. We
hypothesized an interrelationship between cognition, MRI abnormalities,
and psychological well-being. DM2 patients performed significantly worse
than controls on cognitive tasks, especially on tasks that required more
mental efficiency, although the differences were modest (effect sizes
Cohen d < .6). We speculate that DM2 patients have a
diminished ability to efficiently process unstructured information.
Patients with DM2 had significantly higher scores on the SCL-90-R
(p < .001) and on the BDI-II (p < .001) and worse
MRI ratings than controls, but psychological distress did not correlate
with cognition, MRI ratings or biomedical characteristics. Contrary to our
hypothesis, cognitive disturbances and psychological distress thus seem
independent symptoms of the same disease. (JINS, 2007,
To obtain a better understanding of how genetic and environmental processes are involved in the stability and change in problem behavior from early adolescence into adulthood, studies with genetically informative samples are important. The present study used parent-reported data on internalizing and externalizing problem behavior of adoptees at mean ages 12.4, 15.5 and 26.3. In this adoption study adopted biologically related sibling pairs shared on average 50% of their genes and were brought up in the same family environment, whereas adopted biologically unrelated sibling pairs only shared their family environment. The resemblance between these adopted biologically related (N = 106) and unrelated sibling pairs (N = 230) was compared and examined over time. We aimed to investigate (1) to what extent are internalizing and externalizing problem behavior stable from early adolescence into adulthood, and (2) whether the same or different genetic and environmental factors affect these problem behaviors at the 3 assessments. Our results show that both internalizing (rs ranging from .34 to .58) and externalizing behavior (rs ranging from .47 to .69) were rather stable over time. For internalizing and externalizing problem behavior it was found that both genetic and shared environmental influences could be modeled by an underlying common factor, which explained variance in problem behavior from early adolescence into adulthood and accounted for stability over time. The nonshared environmental influences were best modeled by a Cholesky decomposition for internalizing behavior, whereas a time-specific influence of the nonshared environment was included in the final model of externalizing behavior.
The first results of the Women's Health Initiative dietary intervention trial were published in the USA in February. This is a colossal intervention designed to see if diets lower in fat and higher in fruits, vegetables and grains than is usual in high-income countries reduce the incidence of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, heart disease and other chronic diseases, in women aged 50–79 years. As interpreted by US government media releases, the results were unimpressive. As interpreted by a global media blitz, the results indicate that food and nutrition has little or
nothing to do with health and disease. But the trial was in key respects not reaching its aims, was methodologically controversial, and in any case has not produced the reported null results. What should the public health nutrition profession do about such messes?