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We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
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How do we limit global warming to 1.5 °C and why is it crucial? See highlights of latest climate science.
The borderline between the periods commonly termed "medieval" and "Renaissance", or "medieval" and "early modern", is one of the most hotly, energetically and productively contested faultlines in literary history studies. The essays presented in this volume both build upon and respond to the work of Professor Helen Cooper, a scholar who has long been committed to exploring the complex connectionsand interactions between medieval and Renaissance literature. The contributors re-examine a range of ideas, authors and genres addressed in her work, including pastoral, chivalric romance, early English drama, and the writings of Chaucer, Langland, Spenser and Shakespeare. As a whole, the volume aims to stimulate active debates on the ways in which Renaissance writers used, adapted, and remembered aspects of the medieval.
Andrew King is Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at University College, Cork; Matthew Woodcock is Senior Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at the University of East Anglia.
Contributors: Joyce Boro, Aisling Byrne, Nandini Das, Mary C. Flannery, Alexandra Gillespie, Andrew King, Megan G. Leitch, R.W. Maslen, Jason Powell,Helen Vincent, James Wade, Matthew Woodcock
It has previously been demonstrated that the drag experienced by a Poiseuille flow in a channel can be reduced by subjecting the flow to a dynamic regime of blowing and suction at the walls of the channel (also known as ‘transpiration’). Furthermore, it has been found to be possible to induce a ‘bulk flow’, or steady motion through the channel, via transpiration alone. In this work, we derive explicit asymptotic expressions for the induced bulk flow via a perturbation analysis. From this we gain insight into the physical mechanisms at work within the flow. The boundary conditions used are of travelling sine waves at either wall, which may differ in amplitude and phase. Here it is demonstrated that the induced bulk flow results from the effect of convection. We find that the most effective arrangement for inducing a bulk flow is that in which the boundary conditions at either wall are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. We also show that, for the bulk flow induced to be non-negligible, the wavelength of the boundary condition should be comparable to, or greater than, the height of the channel. Moreover, we derive the optimal frequency of oscillation, for maximising the induced bulk flow, under such boundary conditions. The asymptotic behaviour of the bulk flow is detailed within the conclusion. It is found, under certain caveats, that if the amplitude of the boundary condition is too great, the bulk flow induced will become dependent only upon the speed at which the boundary condition travels along the walls of the channel. We propose the conjecture that for all similar flows, if the magnitude of the transpiration is sufficiently great, the bulk flow will depend only upon the speed of the boundary condition.
The addition of elastic polymers to turbulent liquids is known to produce significant drag reduction. In this study, we prove that the drag in pipe and channel flows of an unforced laminar fluid constitutes a lower bound for the drag of a fluid containing dilute elastic polymers. Further, the addition of elastic polymers to laminar fluids invariably increases drag. This proof does not rely on the adoption of a particular constitutive equation for the polymer force, and would also be applicable to other similar methods of drag reduction, which are also achieved by the addition of certain particles to a flow. Examples of such methods include the addition of surfactants to a flowing liquid and the presence of sand particles in sandstorms and water droplets in cyclones.
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