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We use numerical simulations from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center to provide, for the first time, a coherent temporal description of the magnetic reconnection process of two dayside Electron Diffusion Regions (EDRs) identified in Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission data. The model places the MMS spacecraft near the separator line in these most intense and long-lived events. A listing of 31 dayside EDRs identified by the authors is provided to encourage collaboration in analysis of these unique encounters.
In paediatric practice, mean reference energy requirements for groups are often used to predict individual infant energy requirements. References from the FAO/WHO/United Nations University are based on infants not fed according to the current infant feeding recommendations. The objective of the present study was to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) and determine energy requirements using criterion methods, and validate the use of TEE prediction equation and mean energy requirement references for predicting individual TEE and energy requirements, respectively, in infants who were exclusively breast-fed (EBF) to 6 months of age. EBF infants were included from Greater Glasgow for measurements at 3·5 (n 36) and 6 (n 33) months of age. TEE was measured using doubly labelled water and energy requirements were determined using the factorial approach. TEE and energy requirements were also predicted using equations based on body weight. Relationships between criterion methods and predictions were assessed using correlations. Paired t tests and Bland–Altman plots were used to assess agreement. At the population level, predicted and measured TEE were similar. The energy requirement reference significantly underestimated energy requirements by 7·2 % at 3·5 months at the population level, but there was no bias at 6 months. Errors at individual levels were large and energy requirements were underestimated to a larger extent for infants with higher energy requirements. This indicates that references presently used in clinical practice to estimate energy requirements may not fully account for the different growth pattern of EBF infants. More studies in infants EBF to 6 months of age are needed to understand how growth of EBF infants influences energy requirements.
We examined the developmental processes involved in peer problems among children (M age = 10.41 years) previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at study entry (N = 536) and a comparison group (N = 284). Participants were followed over a 6-year period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. At four assessment periods, measures of aggression, social skills, positive illusory biases (in the social and behavioral domains), and peer rejection were assessed. Results indicated that children from the ADHD group exhibited difficulties in each of these areas at the first assessment. Moreover, there were vicious cycles among problems over time. For example, peer rejection was related to impaired social skills, which in turn predicted later peer rejection. Problems also tended to spill over into other areas, which in turn compromised functioning in additional areas across development, leading to cascading effects over time. The findings held even when controlling for age and were similar for males and females, the ADHD and comparison groups, and among ADHD treatment groups. The results suggest that the peer problems among children with and without ADHD may reflect similar processes; however, children with ADHD exhibit greater difficulties negotiating important developmental tasks. Implications for interventions are discussed.
The antibiotic resistance patterns of coliforms in faecal specimens from pigs and their human contacts were studied. The ability of the resistant coliforms to transfer their resistance in vitro to antibiotic-sensitive recipients was examined. The results showed that pigs which had received antibiotics carried more multiply-resistant, R-factor bearing coliforms than pigs which had not been given antibiotics. Human contacts of the antibiotic-treated pigs had a higher incidence of antibiotic-resistant coliforms with R-factors than human contacts of pigs which had not been given antibiotics. It is concluded that antibiotic treatment of farm, animals may lead to acquisition of antibiotic resistance by gut coliforms of man.
Watermelon growers rotate crops to prevent problems, but weed populations in new fields may hold unexpected control challenges. Having effective POST herbicides would provide growers an opportunity to respond to emerging weeds on an as-needed basis. To address this need, field studies were conducted over 4 yr in Oklahoma to determine efficacy and crop response of POST halosulfuron applications to direct-seeded watermelon that received PRE application of ethalfluralin at 840 g/ha. At 5 wk after crop emergence (WAE) halosulfuron was applied at 18, 27, 36, and 54 g/ha. The 27 g/ha rate was also applied at 1, 2, 3 and 7 WAE. Halosulfuron applications made 5 WAE did not provide acceptable (> 80%) control of pigweeds and cutleaf groundcherry regardless of rate. Applications made 1 WAE provided significantly better control of pigweeds and cutleaf groundcherry than did later applications. Halosulfuron treatments of 36 and 54 g/ha made 5 WAE and of 27 g/ha made 1, 2 and 3 WAE did not result in significant yield increases compared with the hand-weeded check. These studies show that POST halosulfuron application may be a useful treatment for direct-seeded watermelon. This option would enable more judicious use of herbicides and possible reduction in production costs.
Studies were conducted to determine injury potential to rotational crops from carryover of herbicides used in watermelon production. Treatments included halosulfuron, ethalfluralin, and sulfentrazone alone; halosulfuron in tank mixtures with bensulide, clomazone, ethalfluralin, and naptalam; and a tank mixture of naptalam and bensulide. Sulfentrazone applied at 224 g ai/ha to watermelon severely reduced spinach emergence, but did not reduce emergence of broccoli, cabbage, or wheat. Residues of sulfentrazone applied to watermelon at 450 g/ha stunted growth of broccoli and cabbage and was the only treatment that reduced wheat stand. Injury to broccoli, cabbage, and spinach increased as the halosulfuron rate increased. Ethalfluralin did not reduce stand or cause injury to any of the four rotational crops. Naptalam plus bensulide did not reduce stand of the four crops and caused either slight or no injury. Residues of sulfentrazone and halosulfuron can injure vegetables following crops in which these herbicides are used, and caution should be taken particularly with spinach, broccoli, and cabbage in this respect.
We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of prescribers concerning piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 Emory University-affiliated hospitals. Discussions during focus groups indicated that the participants' perceived knowledge of clinical criteria for appropriate piperacillin-tazobactam use was inadequate. Retrospective review of medical records identified inappropriate practices. These findings have influenced ongoing interventions aimed at optimizing piperacillin-tazobactam use.
Studies were conducted at eight sites during a 3-yr period in Oklahoma and Arkansas to determine the effectiveness and safety of preemergence applications of halosulfuron both alone and in tank mixtures with bensulide, clomazone, ethalfluralin, and naptalam. Ethalfluralin, naptalam plus bensulide, and sulfentrazone also were applied alone. Although halosulfuron caused up to 20% seedling stunting, watermelon plants recovered by 5 to 7 wk after planting, and yield was similar to that of hand-weeded plots. Halosulfuron treatments controlled hophornbeam copperleaf, Palmer amaranth, carpetweed, and cutleaf groundcherry 80 to 100%. Control of goosegrass was at least 97% with clomazone plus ethalfluralin plus halosulfuron. Injury to watermelon treated with sulfentrazone ranged from 76 to 98% at 2 to 4 wk after treatment. This was reflected by yields that were lower than any other herbicide treatment in the studies.
CGA-362622 has been registered for postemergence (POST) over-the-top or POST-directed application in cotton. Research was conducted during 1998 in Texas to determine potential cotton phytotoxicity after POST application of CGA-362622 alone and with the insecticides acephate, dicrotophos, azinphos methyl, oxamyl, thiamethoxam, dimethoate, and malathion and to determine the response of four cotton cultivars to CGA-362622 applied alone. CGA-362622 applied with malathion injured cotton more than either pesticide applied alone, and yield was reduced in one of four locations when the pesticides were applied in mixture compared with nontreated cotton. Pyrithiobac or CGA-362622 mixed with malathion injured cotton similarly. The other insecticides tank mixed with CGA-362622 generally did not adversely affect cotton. The cotton cultivars ‘Delta and Pine Land 50’, ‘Paymaster 1220’, ‘Paymaster 1220RR’, and ‘Stoneville 474’ responded similarly to CGA-362622 applied alone or with insecticides.
In 1998 a circle of timber posts within the intertidal zone on the north Norfolk coast was brought to the attention of the Norfolk County Council Archaeological Service. A subsequent programme of archaeological recording and dating revealed that the structure was constructed in the spring or early summer of 2049 BC, during the Early Bronze Age. Because of the perceived threat of damage and erosion from the sea a rescue excavation was undertaken during the summer months of 1999. The structure was entirely excavated, involving the removal of the timbers and a programme of stratigraphic recording and environmental analysis. A survey was also undertaken within the environs of the site which has identified further timber structures dating from the Bronze Age. Detailed examination of the timber from the circle has produced a wealth of unexpected information which has added greatly to our understanding of Early Bronze Age woodworking, organisation of labour and the layout and construction of timber ritual monuments.
Clinical prediction rules are decision-making tools that incorporate three or more variables from the history, physical examination or simple tests. They help clinicians make diagnostic or therapeutic decisions by standardizing the collection and interpretation of clinical data. There is growing interest in the methodological standards for their development and validation. This article describes the methods used to derive the Canadian C-Spine Rule and provides a valuable reference for investigators planning to develop future clinical prediction rules.
This paper is Part I of a 2-part series to describe the background and methodology for the Canadian C-Spine Rule study to develop a clinical decision rule for rational imaging in alert and stable trauma patients. Current use of radiography is inefficient and variable, in part because there has been a lack of evidence-based guidelines to assist emergency physicians. Clinical decision rules are research-based decision-making tools that incorporate 3 or more variables from the history, physical examination or simple tests. The Canadian CT Head and C-Spine (CCC) Study is a large collaborative effort to develop clinical decision rules for the use of CT head in minor head injury and for the use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable trauma victims. Part I details the background and rationale for the development of the Canadian C-Spine Rule. Part II will describe in detail the objectives and methods of the Canadian C-Spine Rule study.