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To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in a cohort of pancreas transplant recipients and assess predisposing risk factors for SSI
Retrospective cohort study
Single transplant center in Canada
Patients who underwent any simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) or pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant procedures between January 2000 and December 2015
In this retrospective cohort evaluation of SPK or PAK recipients, we assessed the incidence of SSI and risk factors associated with superficial, deep, and organ/space SSI. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI in SPK and PAK recipients.
In total, 445 adult transplant recipients were enrolled. The median age of these patients was 51 years (range, 19–71 years), and 64.9% were men. SSIs were documented in 108 patients (24.3%). Organ/space SSIs predominated (59 patients, 54.6%), followed by superficial SSIs (47 patients, 43.5%) and deep SSIs (3 patients, 2.8%). Factors predictive of SSIs in the multivariate analysis were cold pancreas ischemic time (odds ratio [OR], 1.002; P=.019) and SPK transplant (compared to PAK transplant recipients; OR, 2.38; P=.038). Patients with SSIs developed graft loss more frequently (OR, 16.99; P<.001).
Organ/space SSIs remain a serious and common complication after SPK and PAK. Prolonged cold ischemic time and SPK transplant were the risk factors predictive of SSIs. Appropriate perioperative prophylaxis in high-risk patients targeting the potential pathogens producing SSIs in kidney and/or pancreas transplant recipients and a reduction in cold ischemia may prove beneficial in reducing these SSIs.
Along with the exponential growth of technology, the use of mobile devices in health, or mHealth, has been quickly becoming a viable practice to strengthen health systems, especially in low-resource settings. Nevertheless, the majority of mHealth interventions are pilot efforts which mostly lack robust design and evidence about the use of mHealth in public health. This study assessed the use of a bi-directional Short Message Service (SMS) in disease surveillance in Vietnam and aimed to bring evidence in improving engagement of health staff as well as the quality of reporting.
Eighty health staff from fourty communes of Hoa Binh and Hung Yen provinces were trained and participated in two 6-month pilots: one with one-way, and one with a bi-directional SMS system for assisting in error screening, and reminder and feedback provision to report two diseases: influenza and diarrhea using cell phones. After each examination and checking-in onto the paper logbook, participants reported the case by texting an SMS to a designated number and made notes of successfully reported cases. A central data repository server was set up to collect SMS reports, and aggregate reported patient data. Engagement of health staff and quality of the reporting work were assessed by the evaluation of the qualitative questionnaires, and the comparison of the texted SMS reports to the patient logbooks.
With the use of a two-way versus one-way SMS system, participants were 4.6 times more likely (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI 3.93-5.44, p< .001) to send correctly formatted text reports, and 3.4 times more likely (95 percent CI 2.72-4.33, p< .001) to have precise information in their texted messages. Results also revealed that while their position, age, or gender of participants did not statistically influence the results, ethnicity and management roles did.
The study showed that the use of a bi-directional SMS-based reporting system both significantly improved participants engagement in the reporting protocol, and greatly enhanced their reporting quality. The study demonstrated that robust evidence of a practical utilization of SMS in a disease reporting system to replace the traditional paper-based one has great potential for a scale-up and national-wide implementation.
To evaluate the incidence of surgical-site infections (SSIs) in a cohort of liver transplant recipients and to assess risk factors predisposing patients to these infections.
Prospective observational cohort study.
Single transplant center in Canada.
Patients who underwent liver transplantation between February 2011 and August 2014.
Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for SSIs in liver transplant patients.
We enrolled 250 liver transplant recipients. The recipients’ median age at the time of transplantation was 56 years (range, 19–70 years), and 166 patients (66.4%) were male. Moreover, 47 SSIs were documented in 43 patients (17.2%). Organ-space, superficial, and deep SSIs were noted in 29, 7, and 3 patients, respectively. In addition, 2 patients developed superficial and organ-space SSIs, and another 2 patients were found to have deep as well as organ-space infections. In total, we identified 33 organ-space SSIs (70.2%), 9 superficial SSIs (19.1%), and 5 deep SSIs (10.6%). Factors predictive of SSIs by multivariate analysis were duct-to-duct anastomosis (odds ratio [OR], 3.88; 95% CI, 1.85–8.13; P<.001) and dialysis (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.02–12.50; P=.046). Of the 66 organisms isolated in both deep and organ-space SSIs, 55 (83%) were resistant to cefazolin.
Organ-space SSIs are a common complication after liver transplantation. Duct-to-duct anastomosis and dialysis were independent risk factors associated with SSIs. Appropriate perioperative prophylaxis targeting patients with duct-to-duct anastomosis and dialysis while simultaneously providing optimum coverage for the potential pathogens causing SSIs is warranted.
During the past 7 years, considerable new evidence has accumulated supporting the use of prophylactic hypothermia for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Studies can be divided into 2 broad categories: studies with protocols for cooling for a short, predetermined period (e.g., 24–48 h), and those that cool for longer periods and/or terminate based on the normalization of intracranial pressure (ICP). There have been no systematic reviews of hypothermia for TBI that include this recent new evidence.
This analysis followed the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the QUOROM (quality of reporting of meta-analyses) statement. We developed a comprehensive search strategy to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing therapeutic hypothermia with standard management in TBI patients. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProceedingsFirst and PapersFirst. Additional relevant articles were identified by hand-searching conference proceedings and bibliographies. All stages of study identification and selection, quality assessment and analysis were conducted according to prospectively defined criteria. Study quality was determined by assessment of each study for the use of allocation concealment and outcome assessment blinding. Studies were divided into 2 a priori–defined subgroups for analysis based on cooling strategy: short term (≤ 48 h), and long term or goal-directed (> 48 h and/or continued until normalization of ICP). Outcomes included mortality and good neurologic outcome (defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 or 5). Pooling of primary outcomes was completed using relative risk (RR) and reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Of 1709 articles, 12 studies with 1327 participants were selected for quantitative analysis. Eight of these studies cooled according to a long-term or goal-directed strategy, and 4 used a short-term strategy. Summary results demonstrated lower mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62–0.85) and more common good neurologic outcome (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.28–1.80). When only short-term cooling studies were analyzed, neither mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.75–1.30) nor neurologic outcome (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.94–1.83) were improved. In 8 studies of long-term or goal-directed cooling, mortality was reduced (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.76) and good neurologic outcome was more common (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.44–1.96).
The best available evidence to date supports the use of early prophylactic mild-to-moderate hypothermia in patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) to decrease mortality and improve rates of good neurologic recovery. This treatment should be commenced as soon as possible after injury (e.g., in the emergency department after computed tomography) regardless of initial ICP, or before ICP is measured. Most studies report using a temperature of 32°–34°C. The maximal benefit occurred with a long-term or goal-directed cooling protocol, in which cooling was continued for at least 72 hours and/or until stable normalization of intracranial pressure for at least 24 hours was achieved. There is large potential for further research on this therapy in prehospital and emergency department settings.
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