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On August 14, 2017, a 6-kilometer mudslide occurred in Regent Area, Western Area District of Sierra Leone following a torrential downpour that lasted 3 days. More than 300 houses along River Juba were submerged; 1141 people were reported dead or missing and 5905 displaced. In response to the mudslide, the World Health Organization (WHO) Country Office in Sierra Leone moved swiftly to verify the emergency and constitute an incident management team to coordinate the response. Early contact was made with the Ministry of Health and Sanitation and health sector partners. A Public Health Emergency Operations Center was set up to coordinate the response. Joint assessments, planning, and response among health sector partners ensured effectiveness and efficiency. Oral cholera vaccination was administered to high-risk populations to prevent a cholera outbreak. Surveillance for 4 waterborne diseases was enhanced through daily reporting from 9 health facilities serving the affected population. Performance standards from the WHO Emergency Response Framework were used to monitor the emergency response. An assessment of the country’s performance showed that the country’s response was well executed. To improve future response, we recommend enhanced district level preparedness, update of disaster response protocols, and pre-disaster mapping of health sector partners.
Myocardial strain measurements are increasingly used to detect complications following heart transplantation. However, the temporal association of these changes with allograft rejection is not well defined. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of strain measurements prior to the diagnosis of rejection in paediatric heart transplant recipients.
All paediatric heart transplant recipients (2004–2015) with at least one episode of acute rejection were identified. Longitudinal and circumferential strain measurements were assessed at the time of rejection and retrospectively on all echocardiograms until the most recent negative biopsy. Smoothing technique (LOESS) was used to visualise the changes of each variable over time and estimate the time preceding rejection at which alterations are first detectable.
A total of 58 rejection episodes were included from 37 unique patients. In the presence of rejection, there were decrements from baseline in global longitudinal strain (−18.2 versus −14.1), global circumferential strain (−24.1 versus −19.6), longitudinal strain rate (−1 versus −0.8), circumferential strain rate (−1.3 versus −1.1), peak longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (1.3 versus 1), and peak circumferential early diastolic strain rate (1.5 versus 1.3) (p<0.01 for all). The earliest detectable changes occurred 45 days prior to rejection with simultaneous alterations in myocardial strain and ejection fraction.
Changes in graft function can be detected non-invasively prior to the diagnosis of rejection. However, changes in strain occur concurrently with a decline in ejection fraction. Strain measurements aid in the non-invasive detection of rejection, but may not facilitate earlier diagnosis compared to more traditional measures of ventricular function.
Recent studies suggest psychotic and eating disorders can be comorbid and could have shared genetic liability. However, this comorbidity has been overlooked in the epidemiological literature.
To test whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia are associated with disordered eating behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in the general population.
Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and random-effects logistic and linear regression models, we investigated the association between PRS for schizophrenia and self-reported disordered eating behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting and excessive exercise) and BMI at 14, 16 and 18 years.
Of the 6920 children with available genetic data, 4473 (64.6%) and 5069 (73.3%) had at least one disordered eating and one BMI outcome measurement, respectively. An s.d. increase in PRS was associated with greater odds of having binge eating behaviours (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI 1.16–1.60) and lower BMI (coefficient, −0.03; 95% CI, −0.06 to −0.01).
Our findings suggest the presence of shared genetic risk between schizophrenia and binge eating behaviours. Intermediate phenotypes such as impaired social cognition and irritability, previously shown to be positively correlated in this sample with schizophrenia PRS, could represent risk factors for both phenotypes. Shared genetic liability between binge eating and schizophrenia could also explain higher rates of metabolic syndrome in individuals with schizophrenia, as binge eating could be a mediator of this association in drug-naïve individuals. The finding of an association between greater PRS and lower BMI, although consistent with existing epidemiological and genetic literature, requires further investigation.
One of the seminar topics scheduled for the summer of 1955 by the Society for American Archaeology was “The American Southwest: A Problem in Cultural Isolation.” The assignment was to “… examine the assumption that these Southwestern cultures resulted from local acceptance and development of generalized and/or specific traits which can be isolated in distant cultural contexts at earlier times than their climactic developments can be observed in the Southwest.”
In this paper, we seek to advance an updated concept of social space that integrates the multilayer and dynamic statistical network methods currently at the disposal of social network researchers. We demonstrate the analytic value of the new concept of social space that we propose with the help of an illustrative analysis of an organizational field involving organizations' external and internal decisions that congeal into a multilevel system of action that shapes the space of possibilities for other participants in the field. Through these internal and external decisions, organizations seek certain positions in their social space while simultaneously modifying that social space over time. We conclude by arguing that network researchers' choices of goodness-of-fit statistics should reflect a consideration about the dimensions of social space of most interest to the nodes involved.
Being of especially high quality, the Neogene fossil record of planktonic foraminifera offers special opportunities for assessing patterns of extinction and speciation. A variety of metrics indicates that within this group the mean duration of lineages has been much shorter (rate of extinction has been higher) for the globorotaliid clade than for the globigerinid clade. Furthermore, in the globorotaliid clade rates of extinction and speciation have not been closely linked to changes in diversity, but rather have been relatively high even at times when diversity has undergone little change. Thus, the globorotaliid clade has undergone more rapid evolutionary turnover than the globigerinid clade. Data for living species reveal that neither geographic range nor temperature tolerance is the primary factor controlling lineage duration. On the other hand, there is evidence that lineages marked by low abundance (small population size) are relatively short-lived. The reason that globorotaliid lineages have generally survived for shorter intervals, on the average, may be that their populations have been less abundant and less stable. Usually they live deeper in the water column, where food is often sparse, and many flourish only in areas of upwelling. Furthermore, the globorotaliids lack symbiotic algae for nutritional support. The same ecological factors may have accelerated speciation in the globorotaliid clade, by causing species to be patchily distributed. Thus, population size and structure have been more important than geographic range in determining rates of extinction and speciation. This parallels the situation for Neogene marine bivalves.
For planktonic foraminifera, as for Western Atlantic Bivalvia, the normal pattern of extinction was reversed in late Pliocene time, apparently in response to climatic cooling. The globigerinids suffered a sudden pulse of extinction. The deeper dwelling globorotaliids fared better; probably many of their species benefited from elevation of the seasonal thermocline into the photic zone. At the same time, rate of speciation declined in the globorotaliid clade, which supports the idea, inferred from the evolutionary history of marine bivalves, that an increase in the size and stability of populations should depress both rate of extinction and rate of speciation.
Historians and historical economists have made much progress during the past half century in reconstructing long-term patterns of economic growth. The development of national income accounting techniques provided measures of gross national product and gross national product per capita in both constant and current dollars for the United States and various other countries that extend back to the first half of the nineteenth century. By providing information on the overall performance of the economy and on the performance of its principal industrial sectors and geographic regions, these measures have succinctly characterized the pattern of economic change in the United States, England, France, and several other European nations for periods of up to a century and a half. They have provided a scale against which such developments as urbanization, technological change, and the impact of various governmental policies can be judged. The new information has often led to important reinterpretations of major historical eras. The discovery that the rate of growth of manufacturing declined during the Civil War decade, for example, led to a searching reexamination of the thesis that the Civil War gave an unprecedented impetus to the industrialization of the United States. The disaggregation of the national accounts to the state level produced the unanticipated finding that during the twenty years leading up to the Civil War the South grew at least as rapidly as the North.
To identify the patient characteristics and rates of retention in a residential rehabilitation drug and alcohol service (Springhill) based on an eclectic model of care. Patients were assessed using the Alcohol and Drug Outcome Measure (ADOM), a brief tool designed for the New Zealand setting. We looked at correlations between demographic, social and drug use parameters. Logistic regression assessed the relative impact of each variable on completion.
The 183 patients who completed the data collection did not differ from 47 non-completers by demographic data; 62.2% of patients completed the programme, with equal number of men and women. One in five participants was Maori, the indigenous minority. Alcohol (51.9%) was the commonest drug of misuse, with methamphetamine (16.4%) and cannabis (14.2%) also significant. Completers were more likely to be Maori, have conflict with family and housing problems, although the last became non-significant in logistic regression.
Retention rates are higher in Springhill than in comparable programmes. Ethnicity and family conflict predict completion, although the reasons for this are unclear. ADOM is an effective tool that can be used in a clinical setting to enable analysis of service provision.
Today sub-Saharan Africa is the poorest part of the planet. Though scholars and researchers debate just when the gap between Africa and the rest of the world developed, it is clear that Africa lagged behind Eurasia in terms of many of the key building blocks of economic growth. One can see this in the factors that go to determine income, for example literacy and human capital, but it is perhaps most evident in technology. The basis of the modern economic growth that emerged in Britain in the late eighteenth century was technological innovation, and the Industrial Revolution had itself built on a long incremental series of innovations in agriculture, transportation, and elsewhere in the economy. Many of these innovations did not take place in Africa. For example, outside of Ethiopia, no African country innovated the plow. Similarly, systems of writing were largely restricted to the same region, though also encompassing the Sudan and Somalia. Also absent was the wheel.
The fact that wheeled transportation was not used in sub-Saharan Africa until the early colonial period is paradoxical because it is well established that African societies knew about the wheel from the early modern period onward. They did not have to reinvent the wheel, only adopt it. Law (1980) documents many cases where Europeans gave gifts of wheeled transportation to different African kings. Wheeled carriages were in use in Dahomey from at least the eighteenth century and were even produced there. Nevertheless, wheeled vehicles did not spread out of ceremonial uses with the exception of a small amount of military use.
James L. Bodkin, US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK, USA,
Dan Esler, US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK, USA,
Stanley D. Rice, National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory, Juneau, AK, USA,
Craig O. Matkin, North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, AK, USA,
Brenda E. Ballachey, US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK, USA
Oil spilled from ships or other sources into the marine environment often occurs in close proximity to coastlines, and oil frequently accumulates in coastal habitats. As a consequence, a rich, albeit occasionally controversial, body of literature describes a broad range of effects of spilled oil across several habitats, communities, and species in coastal environments. This statement is not to imply that spilled oil has less of an effect in pelagic marine ecosystems, but rather that marine spills occurring offshore may be less likely to be detected, and associated effects are more difficult to monitor, evaluate, and quantify (Peterson et al., 2012). As a result, we have a much greater awareness of coastal pollution, which speaks to our need to improve our capacities in understanding the ecology of the open oceans. Conservation of coastal ecosystems and assessment of risks associated with oil spills can be facilitated through a better understanding of processes leading to direct and indirect responses of species and systems to oil exposure.
It is also important to recognize that oil spilled from ships represents only ~9% of the nearly 700 000 barrels of petroleum that enter waters of North America annually from anthropogenic sources (NRC, 2003). The immediate effects of large spills can be defined as acute, due to the obvious and dramatic effects that are observed. In contrast, the remaining 625 000 barrels that are released each year can be thought of as chronic non-point pollution, resulting from oil entering the coastal ocean as runoff in a more consistent but much less conspicuous rate. In this chapter, we primarily address the effects of large oil spills that occur near coastlines and consider their potential for both acute and chronic effects on coastal communities. As described below, in some instances, the effects from chronic exposure may meet or exceed the more evident acute effects from large spills. Consequently, although quantifying chronic effects from low exposure rates can be challenging and time-consuming, the results of such efforts provide insights into the understudied effects of chronic non-point oil pollution.
Photonics Integrated Circuits (PICs) are being applied by the telecommunications industry as transceivers for fibre optic networks. The core component of a typical PIC is the laser array and these devices can have relatively low operating temperatures (15°C - 25°C) with a tight operating range (±0.1K). To accommodate such a specification, a thermal control system is required that can change the cooling rate through feedback. The power density of next generation PICs is at such a level to demand novel thermal management architectures including developments such as near source liquid cooling. In order to control the thermal performance of fluidic devices, effective methods for varying the rate of coolant are an essential component. Consequently, micro-valve structures are required, ideally involving passive actuation to meet stringent reliability standards. One solution to this challenge is to exploit the phase-change driven shape memory effect of the NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). A micro-valve could be developed from the NiTi SMA, thermally coupled to the laser array component in order to work passively to regulate the flow of coolant in a micro-channel. Such a valve would have to be intrinsically reliable, and the goal of this paper is to investigate the conditions that will affect this reliability. The objective of the work is to investigate the mechanical properties relevant to the design of a passive NiTi SMA micro-valve, with a focus on the formation of stress-induced Martensite bands. It is not understood why these bands form on a plane inclined at ∼55° to the axis of loading and in this paper theory is presented that suggests a reasoning for this. A plate sample of NiTi was tested in uni-axial tension and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) used to analyse the strain fields across the surface of the sample. The DIC results revealed areas of high stress concentrations occurring in bands inclined on average 53.86° to the axis of loading. The theory and experimental observations are in agreement with the literature but to validate the theory the crystal texture needs to be analysed in the stress concentration regions. This paper provides valuable insight into the mechanical behaviour of a passive NiTi SMA micro-valve subjected to a sufficient pressure to form stress-induced Martensite.
Diamond was investigated as one of the superior dielectric materials for advanced wakefield accelerators. Both planar and cylindrical wakefield accelerating structures were constructed. An AsTex microwave plasma-enhanced CVD system was modified for synthesis of cylindrical polycrystalline diamond tubes. Cylindrical diamond tubes were successfully synthesized from hydrogen and methane and are characterized with micro Raman, photoluminescence spectroscopy and optical tests. In addition, planar wakefield structures were constructed from commercially available diamond. Wakefield tests on a rectangular diamond structure confirm that diamond can sustain microwave electric field strengths of 0.3 GV/m at its surface without material breakdown.
While we now have a strong evidence base for cognitive behaviour therapy in managing mental health problems, the challenge is to disseminate it into real-world settings. Two dissemination approaches exist: the dominant ‘research to practice’ model, a linear sequence, taking interventions from the research laboratory and overcoming barriers so as to apply them in the real world and a more collaborative approach, in which researchers work together with clinicians and patients to adapt existing treatments for real-world settings. This article provides a detailed example of a collaborative approach to adapting cognitive behaviour therapy, by developing a very brief mental health intervention for patients in a primary-care (family doctor) setting.
Interference for 40 d after emergence (DAE) of corn, cotton, peanut, and snap bean by four glyphosate-resistant (GR) and four glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth populations from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. Greater interference from Palmer amaranth, measured as crop height and fresh weight reduction, was noted in cotton and peanut compared with corn or snap bean. Crop height 15 to 40 DAE was reduced similarly by GR and GS populations. Crop fresh weight, however, was reduced 25 and 19% in the presence of GS and GR populations, respectively. Measured as percent reduction in fresh weight, GR and GS populations of Palmer amaranth were controlled similarly by glufosinate, lactofen, paraquat, and trifloxysulfuron applied POST. Atrazine and dicamba controlled GR populations more effectively than GS populations.
Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is a serious problem in southern cropping systems. Much phenotypic variation is observed in Palmer amaranth populations with respect to plant growth and development and susceptibility to herbicides. This may be related to levels of genetic diversity existing in populations. Knowledge of genetic diversity in populations of Palmer amaranth may be useful in understanding distribution and development of herbicide resistance. Research was conducted to assess genetic diversity among and within eight Palmer amaranth populations collected from North Carolina and Georgia using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Pair-wise genetic similarity (GS) values were found to be relatively low, averaging 0.34. The highest and the lowest GS between populations were 0.49 and 0.24, respectively, while the highest and the lowest GS within populations were 0.56 and 0.36, respectively. Cluster and principal coordinate (PCO) analyses grouped individuals mostly by population (localized geographic region) irrespective of response to glyphosate or gender of individuals. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results when populations were nested within states revealed significant variation among and within populations within states while variation among states was not significant. Variation among and within populations within state accounted for 19 and 77% of the total variation, respectively, while variation among states accounted for only 3% of the total variation. The within population contribution towards total variation was always higher than among states and among populations within states irrespective of response to glyphosate or gender of individuals. These results are significant in terms of efficacy of similar management approaches both in terms of chemical and biological control in different areas infested with Palmer amaranth.