To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The potential of bio-dielectrics for thin film transistor applications was explored via the incorporation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, rutile form, a high dielectric constant (ε) ceramic, in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bio-polymer. The DNA-ceramic hybrid films were fabricated from stable suspensions of the TiO2 nanoparticles in viscous, aqueous DNA solutions. Dielectric characterization revealed that the incorporation of TiO2 in DNA resulted in enhanced dielectric constant (14.3 at 1 kHz for 40 wt % TiO2) relative to that of DNA in the entire frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz. Variable temperature dielectric measurements, in the 20-80°C range, of the DNA-TiO2 films revealed that the ceramic additive stabilizes DNA against large temperature dependent variations in both ε and the dielectric loss factor tan δ. The bulk resistivity of the DNA-TiO2 hybrid films was measured to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the control DNA films, indicating their potential for utilization as insulating dielectrics in transistor and capacitor applications.
It is controversial if distant recurrence of glioblastoma is more common after temozolomide (TMZ) concurrent with radiotherapy (RT). Optimal therapy for patients with recurrent disease after RT/TMZ is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate recurrence patterns in glioblastoma and the effect of treatment at recurrence upon survival.
We performed a retrospective review of 67 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with RT/TMZ between 2003-2007. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier method for survival, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for the effect of salvage treatment on survival.
58 patients (86.6%) recurred locally; 9 patients (13.4%) had a distant non-contiguous focus of new disease. Median survival(MS) was 17 months; median time-to-progression(TTP) 6.8 months. The local and distant groups had comparable prognostic factors. There was no difference in MS(p=0.35) or TTP(p=0.95) by location of recurrence. At relapse, 26 patients(38.8%) received continuous, dose-intense TMZ, 24(35.8%) other therapy(4.5% RT; 20.9% lomustine+/-procarbazine; 4.5% etoposide; 1.5% conventional TMZ; 4.5% TMZ then lomustine), and 17(25.4%) were untreated. Dose-intense TMZ was associated with prolonged MS compared to all other patients(21.5 months vs. 12.4 months, p=0.019, HR=3.86, 95%CI: 1.81-8.22) and similar to MS with other chemotherapy regimens(18.8 months, p=0.40, HR=1.30, 95% CI: 0.65-2.61).
The pattern of recurrence of glioblastoma treated with RT/TMZ was predominantly local. Second-line treatment with continuous dose-intense TMZ may prolong survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Overall survival is similar to other conventional salvage regimens; however TMZ may be better tolerated. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and potential selection bias. Prospective controlled studies are needed.
The imperfect quality of CdZnTe (CZT) crystals for radiation detectors seriously diminishes their suitability for different applications. Dislocations and other dislocation-related defects, such as sub-grain boundaries and dislocation fields around Te inclusions, engender significant charge losses and, consequently, cause fluctuations in the detector’s output signals, thereby hindering their spectroscopic responses. In this paper, we discuss our results from characterizing CZT material by using a high-spatial-resolution X-ray response mapping system at BNL’s National Synchrotron Light Source. In this paper, we emphasize the roles of these dislocation-related defects and their contributions in degrading the detector’s performance. Specifically, we compare the effects of the sub-grain- and coherent twin-boundaries on the X-ray response maps.
We investigated defects in CdZnTe crystals produced from various conditions and their impact on fabricated devices. In this study, we employed transmission and scanning transmission electron microscope (TEM and STEM), because defects at the nano-scale are not observed readily under an optical or infrared microscope, or by most other techniques. Our approach revealed several types of defects in the crystals, such as low-angle boundaries, dislocations and precipitates, which likely are major causes in degrading the electrical properties of CdZnTe devices, and eventually limiting their performance.
Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation was used to determine the energy level structure of Mn doped Li2B4O7crystals. Photoemission studies provided evidence of Mn in the bulk crystal at 47.2 eV. Valence band analysis provided the presence of surface states but no acceptor sites. Cathodoluminescence studies were also made on undoped and Mn doped Li2B4O7using various beam energies from 5 to 10 KeV at room temperature. Self trapped exciton emission states are evident in the undoped and Mn doped Li2B4O7 sample ranging in energies from 3.1 to 4.1 eV.
In this present work we report the growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te doped with In by a modified THM technique. It has been demonstrated that by controlling the microscopically flat growth interface, the size distribution and concentration of Te inclusions can be drastically reduced in the as-grown ingots. This results in as-grown detector-grade CZT by the THM technique. The three-dimensional size distribution and concentrations of Te inclusions/precipitations were studied. The size distributions of the Te precipitations/inclusions were observed to be below the 10-μm range with the total concentration less than 105 cm-3. The relatively low value of Te inclusions/precipitations results in excellent charge transport properties of our as-grown samples. The (μτ)e values for different as-grown samples varied between 6-20 x10-3 cm2/V. The as-grown samples also showed fairly good detector response with resolution of ∼1.5%, 2.7% and about 3.8% at 662 keV for quasi-hemispherical geometry for detector volumes of 0.18 cm3, 1 cm3 and 4.2 cm3, respectively.
Residual impurities in manganese (Mn) are a big obstacle to obtaining high- performance CdMnTe (CMT) X-ray and gamma-ray detectors. Generally, the zone-refining method is an effective way to improve the material’s purity. In this work, we purified the MnTe compounds combining the zone-refining method with molten Te that has a very high solubility. We confirmed the improved purity of the material by glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). We also found that CMT crystals from a multiple refined MnTe source, grown by the vertical Bridgman method, yielded better performing detectors.
Two aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass systems, a lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride and a lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride, doped with different TbF3 concentrations, have been fabricated and investigated. By appropriate heat treatment of the as-prepared glasses above, transparent glass-ceramics (TGC) were obtained. The glass-ceramics contain Tb:Pb(Cd)F2 or Tb:LaF3 nano-crystals in the glass-matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Raman scattering, and luminescence under both UV and β-particle excitation have been investigated on as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics. It has been found that the terbium-doped lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass exhibits good UV excited luminescence and β-induced luminescence. The luminescence yield increases for glass-ceramic compared to that of the as-prepared glass. The including of LaF3 in the glass-matrix is beneficial for a higher Tb-doping concentration and a high light yield. The light yield of lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic is comparable to that of Schott IQI-301 product. However, the terbium-doped lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic have a detrimental luminescence performance. The lead cations in the glass-matrix may create non-bridging oxygen defects, which are a strong source of charge traps, and correlated to a strong Raman “Boson” peak.
Cancer patients experience a number of adverse symptoms, including cognitive impairment, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and others often in combination rather than alone. Fortunately detailed symptom assessment is becoming increasingly recognized as a part of routine patient care by physicians, allied health care providers, and accrediting agencies. Cancer treatment may only be considered successful if these symptoms are managed, but successful management is hampered by insufficient knowledge of mechanisms.
Cognitive dysfunction occurs in the majority of cancer patients on active therapy, and is not infrequently a symptom that heralds the diagnosis. In addition, it persists in a substantial number of patients long after treatment is discontinued. In some situations this type of cognitive dysfunction is popularly termed “chemobrain” or “chemofog” although cognitive impairment can be due to a large number of factors (Table 1.1), many of which are discussed in detail throughout this text.
The components of cognitive dysfunction will vary as a result of the specific etiology, but there are several core cognitive domains that appear to be differentially affected. Cancer patients with cognitive dysfunction often present with complaints of memory disturbance. However, objective testing of memory generally demonstrates a restriction of working memory capacity (e.g., the person is able to learn less information, and learning may be less efficient), and inefficient memory retrieval (e.g., spontaneous recall may be somewhat spotty).
This volume is different from anything that has been published in the fields of oncology and neurosciences. The study of cognitive function in cancer patients is in its infancy, and far behind the research in other diseases. However, cognitive impairment and other adverse symptoms associated with cancer are becoming increasingly important to patients and are identified as a major source of concern for survivors. To date there is no comprehensive text that brings together the basic research and clinical perspectives of the many disciplines involved in understanding the impact of cancer and cancer treatment on brain function. Thus, we felt there was a growing need to address cognitive function across cancers and treatments as a resource for oncologists and other professionals who treat cancer patients and those who are involved in translational research that has an impact on cancer-related symptoms. We are pleased that we have brought together the research and views of the most prominent professionals in the field of cognition and cancer. The book is intended to be accessible to a diverse audience: research and clinical neuropsychologists, neuroscientists, medical and neuro-oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, palliative care health teams, nurses, nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and postgraduate trainees and fellows in these disciplines.
We would like to acknowledge the contributions made by our colleagues and our patients from whom we learn daily. We also appreciate the help of Lori Bernstein, Ph.D, who was involved in the conceptual development of the book in its early stages, as well as the tireless support and enthusiasm of Betty Fulford and Laura Wood of Cambridge University Press.