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Ion implantation is known to increase the lifetime of cutting tools. Current theories are the increase in lifetime is caused by an increase in the residual stress, or by work hardening of the surface associated with the implantation. In this work the effect of ion implantation on the residual stress in titanium nitride coatings made by the standard industrial methods of chemical and physical vapor deposition (CVD and PVD) is studied. It is found in the as-received condition (unimplanted), the residual stress levels are near zero for CVD materials and highly compressive, of the order of 6 GPa, for PVD materials. Ion implantation has no effect on the residual stress: in the coatings made by CVD. Nitrogen does increase the compressive residual stress by some 10% in the near surface regions of PVD coatings, while nickel-titanium dual metal ion implantation does not have any effect. It appears that the lifetime increase is not associated with residual stress effects.
Optical limiting, degenerate four-wave mixing and transient absorption experiments have been performed on a neat liquid lead substituted phthalocyanine. The photophysical mechanisms responsible for the good optical limiting observed in other phthalocyanine solutions are maintained in this pure liquid despite its different peripheral substitution pattern. The liquid is shown to have excited state absorption cross sections that exceed those of the ground state through much of the visible spectrum. Hybrid absorptive/refractive nonlinear response is demonstrated to contribute to both the four-wave mixing and optical limiting response. The mechanism and states responsible are discussed.
Photoexcitation of a new pure liquid phthalocyanine gives both a strong nonlinear absorption and photoalectrical charge generation. The novel photoelectrical properties of the material lead to plasma formation, an additional limiting mechanism, at moderate fluences.
The potential of bio-dielectrics for thin film transistor applications was explored via the incorporation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, rutile form, a high dielectric constant (ε) ceramic, in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bio-polymer. The DNA-ceramic hybrid films were fabricated from stable suspensions of the TiO2 nanoparticles in viscous, aqueous DNA solutions. Dielectric characterization revealed that the incorporation of TiO2 in DNA resulted in enhanced dielectric constant (14.3 at 1 kHz for 40 wt % TiO2) relative to that of DNA in the entire frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz. Variable temperature dielectric measurements, in the 20-80°C range, of the DNA-TiO2 films revealed that the ceramic additive stabilizes DNA against large temperature dependent variations in both ε and the dielectric loss factor tan δ. The bulk resistivity of the DNA-TiO2 hybrid films was measured to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the control DNA films, indicating their potential for utilization as insulating dielectrics in transistor and capacitor applications.
In the spring of 1789, officials elected under the Constitution met in New York to begin the work of organizing the new federal government. The federalists had won the battle for ratification, but the war to establish an accepted and respected federal structure was yet to be won. The opponents of centralized government had been subdued, but not conquered. Issues that had caused heated debate in the Constitutional Convention and in the state ratifying conventions lay just beneath the surface and could be revived easily. Any resurgence could shake the foundation of the new federal edifice.
In this present work we report the growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te doped with In by a modified THM technique. It has been demonstrated that by controlling the microscopically flat growth interface, the size distribution and concentration of Te inclusions can be drastically reduced in the as-grown ingots. This results in as-grown detector-grade CZT by the THM technique. The three-dimensional size distribution and concentrations of Te inclusions/precipitations were studied. The size distributions of the Te precipitations/inclusions were observed to be below the 10-μm range with the total concentration less than 105 cm-3. The relatively low value of Te inclusions/precipitations results in excellent charge transport properties of our as-grown samples. The (μτ)e values for different as-grown samples varied between 6-20 x10-3 cm2/V. The as-grown samples also showed fairly good detector response with resolution of ∼1.5%, 2.7% and about 3.8% at 662 keV for quasi-hemispherical geometry for detector volumes of 0.18 cm3, 1 cm3 and 4.2 cm3, respectively.
The imperfect quality of CdZnTe (CZT) crystals for radiation detectors seriously diminishes their suitability for different applications. Dislocations and other dislocation-related defects, such as sub-grain boundaries and dislocation fields around Te inclusions, engender significant charge losses and, consequently, cause fluctuations in the detector’s output signals, thereby hindering their spectroscopic responses. In this paper, we discuss our results from characterizing CZT material by using a high-spatial-resolution X-ray response mapping system at BNL’s National Synchrotron Light Source. In this paper, we emphasize the roles of these dislocation-related defects and their contributions in degrading the detector’s performance. Specifically, we compare the effects of the sub-grain- and coherent twin-boundaries on the X-ray response maps.
Residual impurities in manganese (Mn) are a big obstacle to obtaining high- performance CdMnTe (CMT) X-ray and gamma-ray detectors. Generally, the zone-refining method is an effective way to improve the material’s purity. In this work, we purified the MnTe compounds combining the zone-refining method with molten Te that has a very high solubility. We confirmed the improved purity of the material by glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). We also found that CMT crystals from a multiple refined MnTe source, grown by the vertical Bridgman method, yielded better performing detectors.
We investigated defects in CdZnTe crystals produced from various conditions and their impact on fabricated devices. In this study, we employed transmission and scanning transmission electron microscope (TEM and STEM), because defects at the nano-scale are not observed readily under an optical or infrared microscope, or by most other techniques. Our approach revealed several types of defects in the crystals, such as low-angle boundaries, dislocations and precipitates, which likely are major causes in degrading the electrical properties of CdZnTe devices, and eventually limiting their performance.
Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation was used to determine the energy level structure of Mn doped Li2B4O7crystals. Photoemission studies provided evidence of Mn in the bulk crystal at 47.2 eV. Valence band analysis provided the presence of surface states but no acceptor sites. Cathodoluminescence studies were also made on undoped and Mn doped Li2B4O7using various beam energies from 5 to 10 KeV at room temperature. Self trapped exciton emission states are evident in the undoped and Mn doped Li2B4O7 sample ranging in energies from 3.1 to 4.1 eV.
It is controversial if distant recurrence of glioblastoma is more common after temozolomide (TMZ) concurrent with radiotherapy (RT). Optimal therapy for patients with recurrent disease after RT/TMZ is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate recurrence patterns in glioblastoma and the effect of treatment at recurrence upon survival.
We performed a retrospective review of 67 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with RT/TMZ between 2003-2007. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier method for survival, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for the effect of salvage treatment on survival.
58 patients (86.6%) recurred locally; 9 patients (13.4%) had a distant non-contiguous focus of new disease. Median survival(MS) was 17 months; median time-to-progression(TTP) 6.8 months. The local and distant groups had comparable prognostic factors. There was no difference in MS(p=0.35) or TTP(p=0.95) by location of recurrence. At relapse, 26 patients(38.8%) received continuous, dose-intense TMZ, 24(35.8%) other therapy(4.5% RT; 20.9% lomustine+/-procarbazine; 4.5% etoposide; 1.5% conventional TMZ; 4.5% TMZ then lomustine), and 17(25.4%) were untreated. Dose-intense TMZ was associated with prolonged MS compared to all other patients(21.5 months vs. 12.4 months, p=0.019, HR=3.86, 95%CI: 1.81-8.22) and similar to MS with other chemotherapy regimens(18.8 months, p=0.40, HR=1.30, 95% CI: 0.65-2.61).
The pattern of recurrence of glioblastoma treated with RT/TMZ was predominantly local. Second-line treatment with continuous dose-intense TMZ may prolong survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Overall survival is similar to other conventional salvage regimens; however TMZ may be better tolerated. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and potential selection bias. Prospective controlled studies are needed.
The structures of C5H5NiNO in a reversible photochemical reaction were studied via EXAFS, FTIR, and optical absorption spectroscopies. A photoexcited intermediate with distinctively different EXAFS, IR, and optical absorption spectra from those of the ground state molecules was generated upon irradiation using 365 nm light at 20K in a 3-methylpentane solution. The reverse reaction was induced by irradiation with 310 nm light. The EXAFS data analysis has shown a 0. 12 Å elongation of the Ni-N bond and the bending of Ni-N-O in the photoexcited intermediate. Several ZINDO calculations were conducted based on the structures obtained from the EXAFS spectroscopy. These calculations reproduced the changes in the optical spectra and the intramolecular electron transfer in C5H5NiNO.
Two aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass systems, a lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride and a lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride, doped with different TbF3 concentrations, have been fabricated and investigated. By appropriate heat treatment of the as-prepared glasses above, transparent glass-ceramics (TGC) were obtained. The glass-ceramics contain Tb:Pb(Cd)F2 or Tb:LaF3 nano-crystals in the glass-matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Raman scattering, and luminescence under both UV and β-particle excitation have been investigated on as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics. It has been found that the terbium-doped lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass exhibits good UV excited luminescence and β-induced luminescence. The luminescence yield increases for glass-ceramic compared to that of the as-prepared glass. The including of LaF3 in the glass-matrix is beneficial for a higher Tb-doping concentration and a high light yield. The light yield of lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic is comparable to that of Schott IQI-301 product. However, the terbium-doped lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic have a detrimental luminescence performance. The lead cations in the glass-matrix may create non-bridging oxygen defects, which are a strong source of charge traps, and correlated to a strong Raman “Boson” peak.