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New δ13Ccarb and microfacies data from Hereford–Worcestershire and the West Midlands allow for a detailed examination of variations in the Homerian carbon isotope excursion (Silurian) and depositional environment within the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation of the Midland Platform (Avalonia), UK. These comparisons have been aided by a detailed sequence-stratigraphic and bentonite correlation framework. Microfacies analysis has identified regional differences in relative sea-level change and indicates an overall shallowing of the carbonate platform interior from Hereford–Worcestershire to the West Midlands. Based upon the maximum δ13Ccarb values for the lower and upper peaks of the Homerian carbon isotope excursion (CIE), the shallower depositional setting of the West Midlands is associated with values that are 0.7 ‰ and 0.8 ‰ higher than in Hereford–Worcestershire. At the scale of parasequences the effect of depositional environment upon δ13Ccarb values can also be observed, with a conspicuous offset in the position of the trough in δ13Ccarb values between the peaks of the Homerian CIE. This offset can be accounted for by differences in relative sea-level change and carbonate production rates. While such differences complicate the use of CIEs as a means of high-resolution correlation, and caution against correlations based purely upon the isotopic signature, it is clear that a careful analysis of the depositional environment can account for such differences and thereby improve the use of carbon isotopic curves as a means of correlation.
This trial compared weight loss outcomes over 14 weeks in women showing low- or high-satiety responsiveness (low- or high-satiety phenotype (LSP, HSP)) measured by a standardised protocol. Food preferences and energy intake (EI) after low and high energy-density (LED, HED) meals were also assessed. Ninety-six women (n 52 analysed; 41·24 (SD 12·54) years; 34·02 (sd 3·58) kg/m2) engaged in one of two weight loss programmes underwent LED and HED laboratory test days during weeks 3 and 12. Preferences for LED and HED food (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and ad libitum evening meal and snack EI were assessed in response to equienergetic LED and HED breakfasts and lunches. Weekly questionnaires assessed control over eating and ease of adherence to the programme. Satiety quotients based on subjective fullness ratings post LED and HED breakfasts determined LSP (n 26) and HSP (n 26) by tertile splits. Results showed that the LSP lost less weight and had smaller reductions in waist circumference compared with HSP. The LSP showed greater preferences for HED foods, and under HED conditions, consumed more snacks (kJ) compared with HSP. Snack EI did not differ under LED conditions. LSP reported less control over eating and reported more difficulty with programme adherence. In conclusion, low-satiety responsiveness is detrimental for weight loss. LED meals can improve self-regulation of EI in the LSP, which may be beneficial for longer-term weight control.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Background: Self-critical thinking is common across psychological disorders. This study hypothesized that it may play an important role in ‘overgeneralization’, the process of drawing general implications from an isolated negative experience. Aims: To explore the impact of two experimental tasks designed to elicit self-critical thoughts on the endorsement of general negative self-views of clinical and non-clinical populations. Method: Three groups (depression, eating disorders and non-clinical controls), completed standardized questionnaires and the two tasks. Participants rated their self-critical thinking and general negative self-beliefs before and after each task. Results: Following a failure experience, both clinical groups showed a greater increase in general negative self-views compared with controls, indicating greater overgeneralization. Both habitual and increases in state self-critical thinking were associated with overgeneralization while negative perfectionism was not. Overgeneralization was more strongly associated with post-task reduced mood than self-criticism. Conclusions: Self-critical thinking may be an important factor in the process of overgeneralization, and the increase in general negative self-views may be particularly crucial for lowering of mood.
While more and more long-period giant planets are discovered by direct imaging, the distribution of planets at these separations (≳5 AU) has remained largely uncertain, especially compared to planets in the inner regions of solar systems probed by RV and transit techniques. The low frequency, the detection challenges, and heterogeneous samples make determining the mass and orbit distributions of directly imaged planets at the end of a survey difficult. By utilizing Monte Carlo methods that incorporate the age, distance, and spectral type of each target, we can use all stars in the survey, not just those with detected planets, to learn about the underlying population. We have produced upper limits and direct measurements of the frequency of these planets with the most recent generation of direct imaging surveys. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign observed 220 young, nearby stars at a median H-band contrast of 14.5 magnitudes at 1”, representing the largest, deepest search for exoplanets by the completion of the survey. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey is in the process of surveying 600 stars, pushing these contrasts to a few tenths of an arcsecond from the star. With the advent of large surveys (many hundreds of stars) using advanced planet-imagers we gain the ability to move beyond measuring the frequency of wide-separation giant planets and to simultaneously determine the distribution as a function of planet mass, semi-major axis, and stellar mass, and so directly test models of planet formation and evolution.
To date, no study has directly and simultaneously measured the discrepancy between what people actually eat and what they report eating under observation in the context of energy balance (EB). The present study aimed to objectively measure the ‘extent’ and ‘nature’ of misreporting of dietary intakes under conditions in which EB and feeding behaviour were continuously monitored. For this purpose, a total of fifty-nine adults were recruited for 12 d, involving two 3 d overt phases and two 3 d covert phases of food intake measurement in a randomised cross-over design. Subjects had ad libitum access to a variety of familiar foods. Food intake was covertly measured using a feeding behaviour suite to establish actual energy and nutrient intakes. During the overt phases, subjects were instructed to self-report food intake using widely accepted methods. Misreporting comprised two separate and synchronous phenomena. Subjects decreased energy intake (EI) when asked to record their food intake (observation effect). The effect was significant in women ( − 8 %, P< 0·001) but not in men ( − 3 %, P< 0·277). The reported EI was 5 to 21 % lower (reporting effect) than the actual intake, depending on the reporting method used. Semi-quantitative techniques gave larger discrepancies. These discrepancies were identical in men and women and non-macronutrient specific. The ‘observation’ and ‘reporting’ effects combined to constitute total misreporting, which ranged from 10 to 25 %, depending on the intake measurement assessed. When studied in a laboratory environment and EB was closely monitored, subjects under-reported their food intake and decreased the actual intake when they were aware that their intake was being monitored.
The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a high contrast coronagraph designed to directly image exoplanets and circumstellar disks. GPI includes a polarimetry mode designed to characterize dust grains and enhance the contrast of scattered, polarized light by a factor of 100. Reflections and birefringence of optics within the optical train induce a polarization signature that needs to be measured a priori and calibrated out during data reduction. Here we report on the results of an extensive laboratory characterization campaign of the polarimetry mode. The linear instrumental polarization has been measured in 4 GPI passbands and found to be between 3.5 ± 0.3 % at 1.0 micron and 1.1 ± 0.3 % at 2.0 microns. Modulation efficiency has been measured to be 94% at 1.0 micron increasing to 97% at 2.0 microns. Stability has been shown to better than 0.6% over timescales of ~ 3 months and over cool down cycles. The tests show that GPI passes all polarimetry design requirements and should be able to measure circumstellar disk linear polarization to 1% accuracy.
Direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets is a key element for understanding planet formation and migration. Such direct detections and characterizations remains technologically challenging, since a very high contrast ratio and small angular separation are involved, and futhermore speckle noise limits the high-contrast imaging performance. We further discuss a speckle subtraction and suppression technique that fully takes advantage of spectral and time-domain information on quasi-static speckles to measure the highest-fidelity photometry as well as accurate astrometry of detected companions.
To quantify and characterize overall antimicrobial use, including appropriateness of indication, among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.
Retrospective and prospective observational study.
Two outpatient hemodialysis units.
All patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.
The rate of parenteral antimicrobial use (number of doses per 100 patient-months) was calculated retrospectively from September 2008 through July 2011. Indication and appropriateness of antimicrobial doses were characterized prospectively from August 2010 through July 2011. Inappropriate administration was defined as occasions when criteria for infection based on national guidelines were not met, failure to choose a more narrow-spectrum antimicrobial on the basis of culture data, or occasions when indications for surgical prophylaxis were not met.
Over the 35-month retrospective study period, the rate of parenteral antimicrobial use was 32.9 doses per 100 patient-months. Vancomycin was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial, followed by cefazolin and third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Over the 12-month prospective study, 1,003 antimicrobial doses were prescribed. Among the 926 (92.3%) doses for which an indication for administration was available, 276 (29.8%) were classified as inappropriate. Of these, a total of 146 (52.9%) did not meet criteria for infection, 74 (26.8%) represented failure to choose a more narrow-spectrum antimicrobial, and 56 (20.3%) did not meet criteria for surgical prophylaxis. The most common inappropriately prescribed antimicrobials were vancomycin and third- or fourth- generation cephalosporins.
Parenteral antimicrobial use was extensive, and as much as one-third was categorized as inappropriate. The findings of this study provide novel information toward minimizing inappropriate antimicrobial use.
The low infrared background and high atmospheric transparency are the principal advantages of Antarctic Plateau sites for astronomy. However, the poor seeing (between 1 and 3 as) negates much of the sensitivity improvements that the Antarctic atmosphere offers, compared to mid-latitude sites such as Mauna Kea or Cerro Paranal. The seeing at mid-latitude sites, though smaller in amplitude, is dominated by turbulence at altitudes of 10–20 km. Over the Antarctic Plateau, virtually no high altitude turbulence is present in the winter. The mean square error for an astrometric measurement with a dual-beam, differential astrometric interferometer in the very narrow angle regime is proportional to the integral of h2C2N(h). Therefore, sites at which the turbulence occurs only at low altitudes offer large gains in astrometric precision. We show that a modest interferometer at the South Pole can achieve 10 μ as differential astrometry 300 times faster than a comparable interferometer at a good mid-latitude site, in median conditions. Science programs that would benefit from such an instrument include planet detection and orbit determination, and astrometric observation of stars microlensed by dark matter candidates.
A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry's identity as essentially ‘applied neuroscience’. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.
Objective estimates of activity patterns and energy expenditure (EE) are important for the measurement of energy balance. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) can estimate EE from the thirty-five postures and activities it can identify and record. The present study evaluated the IDEEA system's estimation of EE using whole-body indirect calorimetry over 24 h, and in free-living subjects using doubly-labelled water (DLW) over 14 d. EE was calculated from the IDEEA data using calibration values for RMR and EE while sitting and standing, both as estimated by the IDEEA system (IDEEAest) and measured by indirect calorimetry (IDEEAmeas). Subjects were seven females and seven males, mean age 38·1 and 39·7 years, mean BMI 25·2 and 26·2 kg/m2, respectively. The IDEEAest method produced a similar estimate of EE to the calorimeter (10·8 and 10·8 MJ, NS), while the IDEEAmeas method underestimated EE (9·9 MJ, P < 0·001). After removing data from static cycling, which the IDEEA was unable to identify as an activity, both the IDEEAest and IDEEAmeas methods overestimated EE compared to the calorimeter (9·9 MJ, P < 0·001; 9·1 MJ, P < 0·05 and 8·6 MJ, respectively). Similarly, the IDEEA system overestimated EE compared to DLW over 14 d; 12·7 MJ/d (P < 0·01), 11·5 MJ/d (P < 0·01) and 9·5 MJ/d for the IDEEAest, IDEEAmeas and DLW, respectively. The IDEEA system overestimated EE both in the controlled laboratory and free-living environments. Using measured EE values for RMR, sitting and standing reduced, but did not eliminate, the error in estimated EE.