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There is little doubt that Indigenous, collaborative, and community-based archaeologies offer productive means of reshaping the ways in which archaeologists conduct research in North America. Scholarly reporting, however, typically places less emphasis on the ways in which Indigenous and collaborative versions of archaeology influence our interpretations of the past and penetrate archaeology at the level of theory. In this article, we begin to fill this void, critically considering archaeological research and teaching at Mohegan in terms of the deeper impacts that Indigenous knowledge, interests, and sensitivities make via collaborative projects. We frame the collaboration as greater than the sum of its heterogeneous components, including its diverse human participants. From this perspective, the project produces new and valuable orientations toward current theoretical debates in archaeology. We address these themes as they relate to ongoing research and teaching at several eighteenth- and nineteenth-century sites on the Mohegan Reservation in Uncasville, Connecticut.
n-3 Fatty acids, flavonoids and resveratrol are well publicised for their beneficial effects on human health and wellbeing. Identifying common, underlying biological mechanisms targeted by these functional foods would therefore be informative for the public health sector for advising on nutritional health and disease, food and drug product development and consumer interest. The aim of this study was to explore the potential effects of gene expression changes associated with n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, flavonoids and resveratrol on modifying biological systems and disease pathways. To test this, publicly available human microarray data for significant gene expression changes associated with dietary intervention with EPA/DHA, flavonoids and resveratrol was subjected to pathway analysis and significance testing for overlap with signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for common non-communicable diseases and biological functions. There was an enrichment of genes implicated in immune responses and disease pathways which was common to all of the treatment conditions tested. Analysis of biological functions and disease pathways indicated anti-tumorigenic properties for EPA/DHA. In line with this, significance testing of the intersection of genes associated with these functional foods and GWAS hits for common biological functions (ageing and cognition) and non-communicable diseases (breast cancer, CVD, diabesity, neurodegeneration and psychiatric disorders) identified significant overlap between the EPA/DHA and breast cancer gene sets. Dietary intervention with EPA/DHA, flavonoids and resveratrol can target important biological and disease pathways suggesting a potentially important role for these bioactive compounds in the prevention and treatment of dietary-related diseases.
Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research.
Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute—the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)—with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research.
In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding.
HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.
Periodicity has recently been reported in the extinction rates of fossil marine families since the Permian. The analysis used appears particularly sensitive to parameter estimation techniques, particularly in the definition of mass extinctions. It also fails to incorporate autocorrelation in the fossil record into its null hypothesis and rests on an inappropriate a posteriori comparison to the null hypothesis. An alternative analysis, examining the time-lags between periods of high extinction rates, produces no evidence of a cycle.
The Gemini Planet Image (GPI) is a new, high-contrast, exoplanet-imaging, facility instrument for the Gemini South observatory, scheduled to begin science observations in 2014. The GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) has been awarded 890 hours to image and spectrally and polarimetrically characterize young, giant planets within 100 parsecs of the solar system. In preparation for the survey, we have developed a framework for simulating GPI observations and generating end-to-end survey simulations. We present new extensions to this modeling effort and our latest results. We discuss systematic methods for scheduling the survey to ensure that the population of discovered planets is useful in constraining formation models and possibly distinguishing between gravitational collapse and core accretion as the primary formation mechanism.
Recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption are largely unmet. Lower socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood poverty and poor access to retail outlets selling healthy foods are thought to predict lower consumption. The objective of the present study was to assess the interrelationships between these risk factors as predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption.
Cross-sectional multilevel analyses of data on fruit and vegetable consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, neighbourhood poverty and access to healthy retail food outlets.
Survey data from the 2002 and 2004 New York City Community Health Survey, linked by residential zip code to neighbourhood data.
Adult survey respondents (n 15 634).
Overall 9·9 % of respondents reported eating ≥5 servings of fruits or vegetables in the day prior to the survey. The odds of eating ≥5 servings increased with higher income among women and with higher educational attainment among men and women. Compared with women having less than a high-school education, the OR was 1·12 (95 % CI 0·82, 1·55) for high-school graduates, 1·95 (95 % CI 1·43, 2·66) for those with some college education and 2·13 (95 % CI 1·56, 2·91) for college graduates. The association between education and fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly stronger for women living in lower- v. higher-poverty zip codes (P for interaction < 0·05). The density of healthy food outlets did not predict consumption of fruits or vegetables.
Higher SES is associated with higher consumption of produce, an association that, in women, is stronger for those residing in lower-poverty neighbourhoods.
To identify predominant dietary patterns among Hispanic women and to determine whether adherence to dietary patterns is predicted by neighbourhood-level factors: linguistic isolation, poverty rate and the retail food environment.
Cross-sectional analyses of predictors of adherence to dietary patterns identified from principal component analysis of data collected using the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation FFQ. Census data were used to measure poverty rates and the percentage of Spanish-speaking families in the neighbourhood in which no person aged ≥14 years spoke English very well (linguistic isolation) and the retail food environment was measured using business listings data.
New York City.
A total of 345 Hispanic women.
Two major dietary patterns were identified: a healthy dietary pattern loading high for vegetables, legumes, potatoes, fish and other seafood, which explained 17 % of the variance in the FFQ data and an energy-dense dietary pattern loading high for red meat, poultry, pizza, french fries and high-energy drinks, which explained 9 % of the variance in the FFQ data. Adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with neighbourhood linguistic isolation and negatively associated with neighbourhood poverty. Presence of more fast-food restaurants per square kilometre in the neighbourhood was significantly associated with lower adherence to the healthy diet. Adherence to the energy-dense dietary pattern was inversely, but not significantly, associated with neighbourhood linguistic isolation.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that living in immigrant enclaves is associated with healthy dietary patterns among Hispanics.
We sought to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in emergency department (ED) patients with syncope, the characteristics of these AMIs and how helpful the initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was in identifying these cases.
In a prospective cohort of consecutive patients with syncope, the initial ECG was found to be abnormal using a prespecified definition (any nonsinus rhythm or any new or age-indeterminate abnormalities). Patients were then followed up to identify an AMI diagnosed within 30 days of presentation.
There were 1474 consecutive patient visits for syncope or near-syncope over a 45-month period spanning from Jul. 1, 2000, to Feb. 28, 2002, and Jul. 15, 2002, to Aug. 31, 2004, of which 46 (3.1%) were diagnosed with AMI. The majority of the AMI patients (42) had no ST segment elevation. The initial ECG was abnormal in 37 out of 46 cases. The diagnostic performance of the initial ECG was sensitivity 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67%–89%), specificity 64% (95% CI 61%–67%), negative predictive value 99% (95% CI 98%–100%), positive predictive value 7% (95% CI 6%–8%), positive likelihood ratio 2.2 (95% CI 1.6–2.5) and negative likelihood ratio 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.5).
The incidence of AMI in patients presenting with syncope is low. A normal ECG has a high negative predictive value, although its sensitivity is limited.