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The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for chronic pain patients in a primary care clinic METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration will be recruited. Patients will be randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group. Participants in the ACT arm will attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. Control group will receive enhanced primary care that includes patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Data analysis will include 1-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multiple regression with bootstrapping. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability, improves functioning, and reduces medication misuse in chronic pain patients when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. In addition, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in value-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the effectiveness of addressing chronic pain in a generalizable integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. Findings have potential to transform the way chronic pain is currently managed in primary care settings, with results that could decrease disability and improve functioning among patients suffering from chronic pain.
We describe the use of a multi-aperture Hartmann mask coupled to a slightly out-of-focus focal plane array imager to monitor atmospheric turbulence (‘seeing’) produced by refractive index fluctuations. The imager (a CCD) is located inside or outside the focal surface of the imaging system so that each sub-aperture of the Hartmann mask produces an image well separated from all of the other images produced by the mask. Since the depth of focus of the sub-apertures is an order of magnitude larger than that of the parent optical system, the individual images are still diffraction-limited. We obtain short (10 to 100 msec) exposures and monitor the position fluctuations of the images. Analysis of the position and intensity fluctuations of the images can be used to determine the atmospheric parameter r0, the wind direction and velocity, and, under some circumstances, the distance of the turbulent layer from the observing site.
The Elements of Crimes, an example of one of the Rome Statute system's many innovative contributions to international criminal law, were adopted by the Preparatory Commission (PrepComm) for crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes on 30 June 2000, and then by the Assembly of States Parties on 9 September 2002.
Elements of Crimes form an important part of the range of instruments available to the Court. They elaborate the definitions of the Rome Statute crimes and thereby assist the Court in their interpretation and application, including, upon entry into force of the relevant amendments, the crime of aggression. The Elements of Crimes must be read in conjunction with article 30 of the Rome Statute, which sets out the general rules with respect to the ‘mental element’ of each crime, i.e. personal criminal liability and responsibility shall only accrue if the ‘material elements’ of the relevant crime are committed with intent and knowledge.
Although the PrepComm was mandated by Resolution F of the Final Act of the Rome Conference to prepare proposals on the crime of aggression including the elements,5negotiations on the elements of the crime of aggression (hereafter ‘the Elements’) were slow to commence in earnest, both in the PrepComm and in the Special Working Group on the Crime of Aggression (Special Working Group) that took over its mandate. That said, this chapter will illustrate how discussions on the Elements in the context of informal settings and formal meetings of the Assembly of States Parties progressed rapidly and effectively once the Special Working Group had agreed on a draft definition of the crime of aggression in February 2009.
In this paper we examine some of the relationships among mortuary features, individual identities, and group identities in the context of the Ridges Basin community, one of the earliest village communities in the American Southwest. Architectural and biodistance data suggest that more than one ethnic group composed the Ridges Basin Pueblo I community and that these groups occupied different house clusters throughout the basin. Mortuary data are examined for patterning in body arrangement, context of interment, and treatment to corroborate the presence of different groups within this community. Results indicate that groups and individuals performed mortuary rituals and incorporated particular rare and exotic items that aided in the construction of personal identities, particularly gendered identities, and that ultimately came to represent and reify group distinctions. It is suggested that, in early villages, elaborations of both gender and ethnicity in mortuary contexts provided accessible and highly visible and noticeable avenues of distinction in the absence of formally instituted leadership and group identity categories.
The Duke Twins Study of Memory in Aging is an ongoing, longitudinal study of cognitive change and dementia in the population-based National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry of World War II Male Veterans. The primary goal of this study has been to estimate the overall genetic and environmental contributions to dementia with a specific focus on Alzheimer's disease. An additional goal has been to examine specific genetic and environmental antecedents of cognitive decline and dementia. Since 1989, we have completed 4 waves of data collection. Each wave included a 2-phase telephone cognitive screening protocol, followed by an in-home standardized clinical assessment for those with suspected dementia. For many participants, we have obtained postmortem neuro-pathological confirmation of the diagnosis of dementia. In addition to data on cognition, we have also collected information on occupational history, medical history, medications and other lifetime experiences that may influence cognitive function in late life. We provide an overview of the study's methodology and describe the focus of recent research.
This paper draws upon James Scott's insights concerning the “public” and “hidden” transcripts of subjugated peoples to investigate Pueblo responses to Spanish colonization in the seventeenth century. We focus on the marked changes that occurred in the decoration of two ceramic wares produced in the Salinas Pueblo region of central New Mexico, and suggest that these changes express one aspect of native resistance to Spanish missionary efforts to eradicate Pueblo religious practices. We document that differences in the impact of missionization between the northern and southern Salinas pueblos led to marked and divergent changes in the ways women decorated glaze and white ware vessels. Women who made glaze ware bowls lived in villages under the direct control of Spanish missionaries, and appear to have deliberately simplified and masked the iconography on their vessels. Women who made white ware jars, however, lived in villages without resident Spanish missionaries. Following Spanish colonization, these women began decorating their vessels with detailed, diverse ritual iconography, apparently in an effort to reinforce, and probably to teach, religious knowledge.
Because people conceptualize the land on which they live metaphorically, it is suggested that metaphor theory is an important component of landscape theory. One kind of metaphorically charged landscape is the hunting landscape, a type of gendered landscape that embodies hunting and animal metaphors related to gender categories and provides a field on which to perform and establish maleness. Two archaeological examples of hunting landscapes in the American Southwest are explored to show how hunting and its associated landscapes facilitate the creation and substantiation of the male persona through metaphorical linkages between humans and animals, hunting and warfare, and game animals and women.
Communal feasting is evaluated as a political resource in the northern Southwest from A.D. 850 to present along three axes: scale of participation and finance, frequency and structure of occurrence, and the resources used. Feasting is a recurrent social practice that has consistently facilitated social integration within Southwest communities, but has shown considerable variation through time. Prior to about A.D. 1275 communal feasting appears to have been more of a source of differentiation within communities than it was after this date, when feasting became truly communal and integrative, as it is today within Puebloan communities. At the same time, feasting also became inter-communal in scale and apparently played a role in the ritual differentiation of individual communities within larger clusters. It is suggested that these changes in the role of feasting had little to do with ecological or environmental variables, but instead reflect the pervasive cultural, social, and religious changes that occurred at this time throughout the Southwest.
Polar research teams often spend extended periods of time away from base stations, living and working in remote field camps of portable tents. This article reports results of a survey study conducted in 1996 of polar researchers from the United States. The study was about the design and use of portable field tents being deployed in polar areas with regard to safety, health, and well-being from the user's perspective. Preliminary analysis indicates that there existed a number of areas in design and use of the shelters that contributed to concerns of safety, health, and well-being among a considerable number of tent users. The article concludes with suggestions for designing and manufacturing portable field tents.
More than 20 examples of probable prehistoric water basins with minimum storage capacities of 10,000–25,000 gallons of water are known in the Mesa Verde region of the American Southwest. The temporal placement of these artificially constructed basins, their exact uses, and their importance as public architecture have been poorly understood. We summarize the general literature on these features, give a detailed account of the excavation results of a dam and basin that we tested and dated, and then synthesize all available data from the gray literature on prehistoric water basins in our area. We argue that water basins and reservoirs in the northern Southwest typically stored domestic water for particular communities and that the first evidence of these public features is probably associated with Chaco-era communities. These features represent early experiments with large-scale water conservation and suggest a long-term commitment to locales by specific communities. Their locations along the canyon edges foreshadow shifts in settlement and increased water conservation strategies that become more pronounced in the later Great Pueblo-period villages-the last villages in this area before the migration of Puebloan people to the south after A.D. 1280.
Quantifying discard to accurately estimate the duration of site occupation is critical middle-range research necessary for understanding assemblage diversity, the nature of settlement systems and mobility strategies, and population size, and for testing any anthropological theory that depends on the accurate measurement of these variables. We address this middle-range research by employing a computer simulation to explore assumptions inherent in the discard equation and to determine the accuracy with which cooking pot refuse measures the length of site occupation. The accumulation of discarded cooking pot sherds is simulated using a strong archaeological case: the Duckfoot site, a Pueblo I residential site located in the Mesa Verde region of southwestern Colorado. We argue that estimating the length of site occupation using data from a strong archaeological case is superior to using the discard equation and ethnographic data, but that the discard equation and ethnographic data-used judiciously-can provide reasonable estimates if a strong archaeological case is not available. Results indicate that the most variable and least accurate results are generated by short-term occupations of sites by small numbers of households. We further conclude that quantifying the accumulation of discarded cooking pot sherds has considerable promise as a means of estimating the length of site occupation.
As part of an ongoing investigation to characterize the properties and structure of zinc halide-tellurium oxide glasses, we report preliminary measurements of the optical properties of several Nd- and Er-doped tellurites. Measurements include florescence lifetimes and estimates of the theoretical radiative lifetimes (as obtained by traditional Judd-Ofelt analysis of optical absorption spectra) as well as phonon sideband studies sensitive to vibrational characteristics near the rare earth ion. The response of these optical features to the substitution of alternative halides is examined.
Earlier studies demonstrated quantitatively that recent salinization of the Karnak Temples, Egypt, is due to evaporation of saline groundwaters under the temples. Furthermore, it was determined that the high salinity of groundwaters is due to extensive evaporotranspiration over the adjacent irrigated fields. To abate salinization, in 1986, a desalinization station was installed in the central part of Karnak at Lake Amun. Present studies indicate that by 1987, the desalinization effort was already very successful, with the salinity of the Lake being lowered by a factor of more than 37. Some residual salinity was still evident a year after desalinization stations were installed. It appears that this residual salinity is due primarily to leaching of salts which were deposited around the Lake before 1986. Thus, not only the Lake, but also the area adjacent to it appear to be desalinized as a result of construction of the desalinization station.
In the eastern deciduous forests of North America, oaks (Quercus spp.) that have been weakened by stress are often attacked and killed by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Dunn et al. 1986a). This borer attacks stressed and dying trees but does not attack healthy or dead trees (Haack and Benjamin 1982; Dunn et al. 1986a, 1987).