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We conducted research to evaluate various herbicides for POST false-green kyllinga control in cool-season turfgrass (primarily creeping bentgrass). In a preliminary evaluation, single and sequential applications of halosulfuron-methyl (70 g ai ha−1), mesotrione (175 g ai ha−1), and sulfentrazone (140 g ai ha−1), as well as a single application of imazosulfuron (740 g ai ha−1), were evaluated in New Jersey. Imazosulfuron and sequential applications of halosulfuron-methyl controlled false-green kyllinga >93% at 9 and 18 wk after initial treatment (WAIT). Sulfentrazone and mesotrione controlled false-green kyllinga <50%. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate single and sequential applications of halosulfuron-methyl (70 g ha−1), imazosulfuron (420 and 740 g ha−1), and sulfentrazone (140 g ha−1) in New Jersey and Indiana at two locations in each state. At 12 WAIT, imazosulfuron generally controlled false-green kyllinga more effectively than other treatments at all locations. Sequential applications of imazosulfuron controlled false-green kyllinga 100% at 12 WAIT. Halosulfuron-methyl was less effective in Indiana than in New Jersey. Sulfentrazone controlled false-green kyllinga <40% at 12 WAIT. This research demonstrates that imazosulfuron is more effective than halosulfuron-methyl and sulfentrazone for POST false-green kyllinga control in cool-season turf.
This paper examines individual differences in constraints on linguistic variation in light of Labov's (2007) proposal that adult change (diffusion) disrupts systems of constraints and Tamminga, MacKenzie, and Embick's (2016) typology of constraints. It is shown that, in pooling data from multiple speakers, some of the complexity in structured community variation may be overlooked. Data on rhoticity from speakers of Bristol English are compared to 34 previous studies of rhoticity in varieties of English around the world. Constraints found to be consistent across varieties are also found to be consistent across speakers of Bristol English, whereas those that differ between varieties also differ between individuals, implying that only those which differ are truly part of the grammar, and that these are indeed disrupted by diffusion.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Drug development is a common research pursuit for basic and clinical scientists that interfaces diagnostic/therapeutic challenges with funding agencies, pharmaceutical industry, regulatory systems, and education. The University at Buffalo Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) has implemented a Drug Development Core (DDC) with goals that foster team science and collaboration, optimize laboratory use, and networks investigators. Our goals are to foster collaborations within the region and with other CTSAs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The DDC met with 300 potential investigators from 14 departments and several local companies. There were 35 portal requests from 15 departments and 7 companies; 8 were from training programs. For 28 requests, a reviewer provided consultation, while 7 required discussions and review of data. DDC assisted with 15 grant applications (outcomes pending), 10 industry-related new drug development requests and 1 regulatory review. Curriculum reviews noted overlap and gaps. Cross-institute opportunities for M.D.-Ph.D. research mentoring were identified. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The DDC met with 300 potential investigators from 14 departments and several local companies. There were 35 portal requests from 15 departments and 7 companies; 8 were from training programs. For 28 requests, a reviewer provided consultation, while 7 required discussions and review of data. DDC assisted with 15 grant applications (outcomes pending), 10 industry-related new drug development requests and 1 regulatory review. Curriculum reviews noted overlap and gaps. Cross-institute opportunities for M.D.-Ph.D. research mentoring were identified. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTSI DDC was well received by investigators. The request process fosters collaboration among researchers with similar interests and identifies core laboratory resources that add innovation to ongoing research, funding applications, education, and interinstitutional planning.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Although the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi is now very common and widespread throughout Western Europe, reports of clinical cases are still rare. This study explores the epidemiological background to a severe rumen fluke outbreak in 6-month-old heifers on a dairy farm in Ireland. Sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of the rumen fluke metacercariae on pasture failed to identify predominant, possibly pathogenic subtypes. However, estimates of metacercarial load indicated that the animals were exposed to a daily dose of about 5334 C. daubneyi metacercariae for a period of 3 weeks resulting in the build-up of very large numbers of immature worms in the small intestine. It is hypothesized that specific environmental conditions may favour this parasite over its competitor, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, possibly by allowing it to emerge earlier. The possibility that C. daubneyi may be better adapted to the Irish climate than F. hepatica together with the fact that selective treatment against F. hepatica effectively frees the niche for C. daubneyi, may result in the gradual replacement of F. hepatica by C. daubneyi.
It was inevitable that from the beginning of the Christian era in England education would rest in the hands of the Church, so that “from the first, education was the creature of religion, the school was an adjunct of the church, and the schoolmaster was an ecclesiastical officer.” It was the mission of the Church to teach, and only by doing so could it widen its authority or, indeed, perpetuate itself. Its Influence gradually spread throughout the country, and many of its servants had the necessary leisure to give instruction not only in all that concerned religious doctrine but in reading, the study of Latin, and Whatever was necessary to ensure that the missionary, liturgical, and administrative needs of the Church were met. By a natural process the study of Latin would in suitable circumstances lead on to the Study of secular works, to which a knowledge of Latin provided the key. Of course there were fields of education outside the scope of the Church, but in a relatively uncomplicated society such acquirements as skill in arms, the social graces of aristocratic life, or knowledge of crafts could be learned from their practitioners. King Alfred, who had himself been taught, as he said, “by Plegmund, my archbishop, and Asser, my bishop, and Grimbold, my mass-priest, and John my Inass priest,” naturally asked for the Church's help to bring it about “as we can very easily do … that all the youth of our English freemen who can afford to devote themselves to it should be set to learning.”
Hulless oats are of interest as an alternative to corn and wheat in organic poultry diets because they offer potential to enhance agrobiodiversity and produce locally grown feeds both within and outside of corn-growing regions. Hulless oats are easily certified GM-free and have demonstrated nutritional value for poultry. A feeding study was carried out to examine: (i) the effects of substituting corn, wheat or a fraction of each with hulless oats in organic layer diets, and (ii) the importance of oat variety in feed performance. Productivity and economic implications in the context of current organic markets were explored. Experimental diets included an oat-free control, Oat + corn, Oat + wheat and Oat + corn + wheat, each of which was formulated with three hulless oat varieties, AC Gwen, Paul and Streaker. All but the control diet included oats at 200 g kg−1. Three hundred Hy-Line Brown hens were individually caged and allocated to diets in groups of 10 in a completely randomized design with three replicates per diet. Experimental diets were fed between 24 and 32 weeks of age during which time hen health, egg production and egg quality indicators were monitored. Results indicated that hulless oats had no negative effects on hen health and productivity. On the basis of current organic feed ingredient prices and an estimated cost of USD 533 mt−1 for production of oats in the study region, oat containing diets were more expensive than the oat-free control. In an evaluation of revenue based on current market prices for organic eggs, the additional cost was completely offset by larger egg sizes of hens on oat containing diets. There were no major differences associated with oat variety.
We develop new algorithms for approximating extremal toric Kähler metrics. We focus on an extremal metric on , which is conformal to an Einstein metric (the Chen–LeBrun–Weber metric). We compare our approximation to one given by Bunch and Donaldson and compute various geometric quantities. In particular, we demonstrate a small eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian of the Einstein metric that gives numerical evidence that the Einstein metric is conformally unstable under Ricci flow.
No assessment of leisure in nineteenth-century Ireland would seem to be complete without some attention to the Irish Victorian writer, Charles Lever (1806–72). His early novels are full of people with a lot of time on their hands for leisure activities and are associated with a notion of excessive exuberance in the pursuit of leisure known as ‘rollicking’. As a result, they have been much criticised, though mostly inaccurately, for the promotion of demeaning humorous stereotypes of the Irish, particularly the Irish peasantry.
Lever was an Irish Protestant doctor who spent some time in rural Ireland and knew the conditions of poor people at first hand, having worked through the cholera epidemic of 1832. But he moved into the literary world and became the editor of the Dublin University Magazine in 1841. He also began to publish novels of Irish life to great popular acclaim in Britain, his most famous being his first, Harry Lorrequer (1837). For a time, the popularity of his work matched that of his contemporary Charles Dickens. But he came in for attack from a variety of fellow authors, possibly out of envy, though on other presenting grounds. Most damaging were the attacks from William Carleton who had a reputation for being the faithful and authentic chronicler of Irish peasant life in his own novels. Carleton accused Lever of presenting a demeaning, humorous version of Irishness for British consumption. Lever eventually moved to the continent, where he lived for the rest of his life, still writing novels.
This chapter focuses on Jack Hinton, the guardsman (1842), a novel mostly taken up with the description of leisure activities and whose main thematic interest lies in probing whether sincere feeling can be expressed through the social interaction that leisure gives rise to. Hinton is sent to Dublin to the staff of the Lord Lieutenant, the nominal ruler of Ireland, to get him away from the London social whirl. In Ireland he does not have much if any work to do and his time is taken up with leisure pursuits and socialising. Later on, he experiences the latter stages of the Peninsula War and becomes a prisoner of war of the French. He overcomes various obstacles and ends the novel married to Louisa Bellew whom he had met in Ireland.
This study investigated the effectiveness of support groups for people living with chronic ill-health conditions. Searches of the published literature were undertaken for the period 1993–2013. Papers were included if participants were between 18 and 65 years old, and study designs were either pre-test post-test one group descriptive, non-randomised group comparison, or randomised controlled trial, with reported data appropriate for meta-analysis and sufficient for estimating effect size(s). Total 19 studies were eligible in the meta-analysis, and 2,986 participants were examined. Six general outcome categories emerged from the data: (1) psychosocial functioning, (2) self-efficacy, (3) quality of life, (4) health status, (5) health behaviours and (6) health care use. In total, 155 effect sizes were calculated from the outcome measures with 15.5% resulting in a large effect size, 6% moderate effects, 39% small effects, and 39.5% producing trivial effects. The majority of the effect sizes (92%) were in the hypothesised direction. Overall, results demonstrate that self-help and support group interventions can positively influence management of chronic ill-health conditions and contribute to the desired outcome of successful adaptation.
The collective response of electrons in an ultrathin foil target irradiated by an ultraintense (
) laser pulse is investigated experimentally and via 3D particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that if the target is sufficiently thin that the laser induces significant radiation pressure, but not thin enough to become relativistically transparent to the laser light, the resulting relativistic electron beam is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse directed along the laser polarization axis. When the target thickness is decreased such that it becomes relativistically transparent early in the interaction with the laser pulse, diffraction of the transmitted laser light occurs through a so called ‘relativistic plasma aperture’, inducing structure in the spatial-intensity profile of the beam of energetic electrons. It is shown that the electron beam profile can be modified by variation of the target thickness and degree of ellipticity in the laser polarization.
The results are presented of a new program of radiocarbon dating undertaken on 88 human skeletons. The individuals derived from Eneolithic to Early Iron Age sites—Afanasievo, Okunevo, Andronovo (Fedorovo), Karasuk, and Tagar cultures—in the Minusinsk Basin of Southern Siberia. All the new dates have been acquired from human bone, which is in contrast to some of the previous dates for this region obtained from wood and thus possibly unreliable due to old-wood effects or re-use of the timber. The new data are compared with the existing 14C chronology for the region, thereby enabling a clearer understanding to be gained concerning the chronology of these cultures and their place within the prehistory of the Eurasian steppes.