To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We advocate for an experimental approach to the study of personality and politics. In particular, we propose an “interactionist” model of political behavior in which the cognitive and behavioral effects of dispositional variables are qualified by experimentally induced contexts. Our operating assumption is that the political effects of personality do not occur in a contextual vacuum, but instead are magnified by the presence of key precipitating or “activating” features of the political environment. We illustrate the approach with four experimental studies of authoritarianism. Results indicate that the effects of authoritarianism depend critically on the presence of situationally induced threat. More generally, we argue that interactions between personality variables and experimental treatments can lead to valuable insights about when and why personality makes a meaningful contribution to public opinion and political behavior. Finally, we close with a critique of the traditional skepticism toward experimentation in political science, and suggest that external validity is an overrated virtue when the research goal is the development of theory rather than the description of “real-world” phenomena.
Combining data from mitotic crossing over in, and haploidization of, heterozygous diploid strains, 33 markers have been mapped successfully in Verticillium spp. One marker (Hyl), which determines the absence of darkly pigmented resting structures in many stable hyaline strains, showed an irregular segregation. In view of previous evidence from acriflavine treatment and heterokaryon analyses in the fungus, this further substantiated indications of a cytoplasmic pattern of inheritance for this marker. The phenotypic expression of dark pigment genes showing nuclear inheritance, such as Sot., depends upon the cytoplasmically determined (Hyl+) presence of resting structures.
This paper investigates the scale of vocabulary learning that appears to be common among British foreign language learners of French up to university graduation. These results are compared with historical data and the knowledge learners possessed in previous generations. This is done by comparing current students' vocabulary knowledge with students who studied more than 20 years ago. These comparisons provide very powerful evidence in support of claims made to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of a progressive decline in the knowledge of learners and the standard of school examinations over a period of decades.
This book explores approaches to the measurement of vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary development in second and foreign language learners. Vocabulary plays an important role in the lives of all language users, since it is one of the major predictors of school performance, and successful learning and use of new vocabulary is also key to membership of many social and professional roles. The measurement of vocabulary knowledge in second language learners is of interest not only to language teachers, who are often required to make assessments of development of their learners’ language proficiency, but also to researchers and test developers who seek to develop valid and reliable measures of second language knowledge and use. While there is a considerable literature of many aspects of language testing, the assessment of lexical knowledge has received relatively little attention until recently, despite the fact that vocabulary can be viewed as the core component of all the language skills. The papers in this book show how scholars in a number of different countries are addressing fundamental questions related to vocabulary modelling and measurement.
Modelling and Assessing Vocabulary provides an overview of issues involved in vocabulary measurement in second and foreign language learning. The central question which the contributors to the book explore is, how can one assess the extent and richness of a person's vocabulary knowledge and use? Lexical competence is difficult to assess with a single measure since vocabulary knowledge is multi-faceted.
This chapter will consider in more detail the first of the validity questions which Nation raises in the opening chapter: that of the individual variables each learner will bring to the testing process. Lexical knowledge, like all language knowledge, is not a directly accessible quality like a person's height or weight. In tests, therefore, we rely on the learners themselves to demonstrate their knowledge so we can assess it or measure it. In the opening chapter Nation points out that this is inherently problematic for the validity of a test and its results. If a learner is uninterested and does not try, or guesses a lot, or gives up half way through the test, then the score cannot accurately reflect the learner's true knowledge or ability. The validity of any test of this kind relies on the assumption that learners will behave reasonably, and reasonably consistently, in trying to show what knowledge they have.
In reality we know that learners faced with a test do not always behave either reasonably or consistently. Vocabulary size testing, which makes extensive use of objective style questions, is particularly open to learners using, or attempting to use, test-taking strategies in the hope of maximising their score rather than accurately reflecting their knowledge. A test such as the Eurocentre's Vocabulary Size Test (Meara and Jones, 1990) makes a calculation of a testee's guesswork based on responses to false words contained in the test and, if guessing is sufficiently high, indicates an accurate assessment cannot be made.
Over the last 20 years vocabulary research has grown from a ‘Cinderella subject’ in foreign language teaching and research, to achieve a position of some salience. Vocabulary is now considered integral to just about every aspect of language knowledge. With this development have come standard and widely used tests, such as vocabulary size and lexical richness measures, and very commonly accepted metaphors, such as ‘a web of words’ to describe the mental lexicon. Less widely known outside academic circles, however, is the extensive work on learners’ lexis and the utility, reliability and validity of the tests we use to measure and investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth. Vocabulary is a lively and vital area of innovation in academic approach and research. The penalty we pay for working in so vital a subject area is that even recent, and excellent, surveys of the field are rapidly overtaken by new ideas, fresh insights in modelling and testing, a healthy re-evaluation of the principles we work under, and an ever-growing body of empirical research. The intention of this volume, therefore, is to place in the hands of the reader some of these new ideas and insights. It brings together contributions from internationally renowned researchers in this field to explain much of the background to study in this area, and reconsider some of the ideas which underpin the tests we use. It introduces to a wider audience the concerns, new approaches and developments in the field of vocabulary research and testing.