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Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
How neighbourhood characteristics affect the physical safety of people with mental illness is unclear.
To examine neighbourhood effects on physical victimisation towards people using mental health services.
We developed and evaluated a machine-learning-derived free-text-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to ascertain clinical text referring to physical victimisation. This was applied to records on all patients attending National Health Service mental health services in Southeast London. Sociodemographic and clinical data, and diagnostic information on use of acute hospital care (from Hospital Episode Statistics, linked to Clinical Record Interactive Search), were collected in this group, defined as ‘cases’ and concurrently sampled controls. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated associations (odds ratios, ORs) between neighbourhood-level fragmentation, crime, income deprivation, and population density and physical victimisation.
Based on a human-rated gold standard, the NLP algorithm had a positive predictive value of 0.92 and sensitivity of 0.98 for (clinically recorded) physical victimisation. A 1 s.d. increase in neighbourhood crime was accompanied by a 7% increase in odds of physical victimisation in women and an 13% increase in men (adjusted OR (aOR) for women: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.14, aOR for men: 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.21, P for gender interaction, 0.218). Although small, adjusted associations for neighbourhood fragmentation appeared greater in magnitude for women (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) than men, where this association was not statistically significant (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.95–1.04, P for gender interaction, 0.096). Neighbourhood income deprivation was associated with victimisation in men and women with similar magnitudes of association.
Neighbourhood factors influencing safety, as well as individual characteristics including gender, may be relevant to understanding pathways to physical victimisation towards people with mental illness.
The aim of this fixed-dose study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED).
Patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fixed doses of dasotraline (4 and 6 mg/d), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in number of binge-eating (BE) days per week at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included week 12 change on the BE CGI-Severity Scale (BE-CGI-S) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale Modified for BE (YBOCS-BE).
At week 12, treatment with dasotraline was associated with significant improvement in number of BE days per week on the dose of 6 mg/d (N = 162) vs placebo (N = 162; −3.47 vs −2.92; P = .0045), but not 4 mg/d (N = 161; −3.21). Improvement vs placebo was observed for dasotraline 6 and 4 mg/d, respectively, on the BE-CGI-S (effect size [ES]: 0.37 and 0.27) and on the YBOCS-BE total score (ES: 0.43 and 0.29). The most common adverse events on dasotraline were insomnia, dry mouth, headache, decreased appetite, nausea, and anxiety. Changes in blood pressure and pulse were minimal.
Treatment with dasotraline 6 mg/d (but not 4 mg/d) was associated with significantly greater reduction in BE days per week. Both doses of dasotraline were generally safe and well-tolerated and resulted in global improvement on the BE-CGI-S, as well as improvement in BE related obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviors on the YBOCS-BE. These results confirm the findings of a previous flexible dose study.
This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until ‘comfortably full’ (ad libitum) and on the other, until they ‘could not eat another bite’ (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine–tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.
Dasotraline is a long-acting dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with a PK profile characterized by slow absorption and a t½ of 47-77 hours, permitting once-daily dosing. In a previous flexible dose study, dasotraline demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). The aim of this confirmatory fixed-dose study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with BED.
Patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with dasotraline (4 mg/d or 6 mg/d), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in number of binge-eating days per week at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes at Week 12 on the Binge Eating Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale (BE-CGI-S), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating (Y-BOCS-BE), and the proportion of patients with 100% cessation of binge-eating episodes during the final 4 weeks of treatment. Efficacy was assessed using an MMRM analysis (and a logistic regression model for cessation) with a pre-specified sequential testing procedure used to control overall type I error rate.
A total of 486 were in the ITT population (dasotraline 6 mg/d (N=162), 4 mg/d (N=161), or placebo (N=163). At week 12, treatment with dasotraline was associated with significant reduction in number of binge-eating days per week in the 6 mg/d group vs. placebo (-3.5 vs. -2.9; P=0.0045), but non-significant improvement in the 4 mg/d group vs. placebo (-3.2; P=0.12). Greater improvement was observed vs. placebo for dasotraline 6 mg/d and 4 mg/d, respectively, on the BE-CGI-S (P<0.01 and P<0.03) and the Y-BOC-BE (P<0.001 and P<0.02; all P-values were nominal, not adjusted for multiplicity). The proportion of patients who achieved 4-week cessation of binge-eating episodes was only significant for the dasotraline 6 mg in the completer population (P<0.05; post-hoc analysis) but was not significant for either dose of dasotraline vs. placebo when drop-outs were included in the analysis. The most common adverse events on dasotraline 6 mg/d and 4 mg/d were combined insomnia (early, middle, late), dry mouth, headache, decreased appetite, nausea, and anxiety. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were minimal. Mean baseline to endpoint changes in supine pulse rate on dasotraline 6 mg/d and 4 mg/d vs. placebo was +6.2 bpm and +4.8 vs. +0.2 bpm.
In this 12-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study, treatment with dasotraline 6 mg/d was associated with a significant reduction in frequency of binge-eating days per week; efficacy was not demonstrated for the 4 mg dose. Treatment with both doses of dasotraline resulted in improvement in the Y-BOCS-BE and the BE-CGI-S. Dasotraline was safe and generally well-tolerated at both doses; most common adverse events were insomnia, dry mouth and headache.
Supported by funding from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
A growing body of research supports the value of a multimodal assessment approach, drawing on measures from different response modalities, for clarifying how core biobehavioral processes relate to various clinical problems and dimensions of psychopathology. Using data for 507 healthy adults, the current study was undertaken to integrate self-report and neurophysiological (brain potential) measures as a step toward a multimodal measurement model for the trait of affiliative capacity (AFF) – a biobehavioral construct relevant to adaptive and maladaptive social-interpersonal functioning. Individuals low in AFF exhibit a lack of interpersonal connectedness, deficient empathy, and an exploitative-aggressive social style that may be expressed transdiagnostically in antagonistic externalizing or distress psychopathology. Specific aims were to (1) integrate trait scale and brain potential indicators into a multimodal measure of AFF and (2) evaluate associations of this multimodal measure with criterion variables of different types. Results demonstrated (1) success in creating a multimodal measure of AFF from self-report and neural indicators, (2) effectiveness of this measure in predicting both clinical-diagnostic and neurophysiological criterion variables, and (3) transdiagnostic utility of the multimodal measure at both specific-disorder and broad symptom-dimension levels. Our findings further illustrate the value of psychoneurometric operationalizations of biobehavioral trait dimensions as referents for clarifying transdiagnostic relationships between biological systems variables and empirically defined dimensions of psychopathology.
The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) comprises multiple longitudinal, community-representative investigations of twin and adoptive families that focus on psychological adjustment, personality, cognitive ability and brain function, with a special emphasis on substance use and related psychopathology. The MCTFR includes the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), a cohort of twins who have completed assessments in middle and older adulthood; the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) of twins assessed from childhood and adolescence into middle adulthood; the Enrichment Study (ES) of twins oversampled for high risk for substance-use disorders assessed from childhood into young adulthood; the Adolescent Brain (AdBrain) study, a neuroimaging study of adolescent twins; and the Siblings Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS), a study of adoptive and nonadoptive families assessed from adolescence into young adulthood. Here we provide a brief overview of key features of these established studies and describe new MCTFR investigations that follow up and expand upon existing studies or recruit and assess new samples, including the MTR Study of Relationships, Personality, and Health (MTR-RPH); the Colorado-Minnesota (COMN) Marijuana Study; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study; the Colorado Online Twins (CoTwins) study and the Children of Twins (CoT) study.
The archaeological site of Saruq al-Hadid, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, presents a long sequence of persistent temporary human occupation on the northern edge of the Rub’ al-Khali desert. The site is located in active dune fields, and evidence for human activity is stratified within a deep sequence of natural dune deposits that reflect complex taphonomic processes of deposition, erosion and reworking. This study presents the results of a program of radiocarbon (14C) and thermoluminescence dating on deposits from Saruq al-Hadid, allied with studies of material remains, which are amalgamated with the results of earlier absolute dating studies provide a robust chronology for the use of the site from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period. The results of the dating program allow the various expressions of human activity at the site—ranging from subsistence activities such as hunting and herding, to multi-community ritual activities and large scale metallurgical extraction—to be better situated chronologically, and thus in relation to current debates regarding the development of late prehistoric and early historic societies in southeastern Arabia.
Herbicide active ingredients, formulation type, ambient temperature, and humidity can influence volatility. A method was developed using volatility chambers to compare relative volatility of different synthetic auxin herbicide formulations in controlled environments. 2,4-D or dicamba acid vapors emanating after application were captured in air-sampling tubes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after herbicide application. The 2,4-D or dicamba was extracted from sample tubes and quantified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Volatility from 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA) was determined to be greater than that of 2,4-D choline in chambers where temperatures were held at 30 or 40 C and relative humidity (RH) was 20% or 50%. Air concentration of 2,4-D DMA was 0.399 µg m−3 at 40 C and 20% RH compared with 0.005 µg m−3 for 2,4-D choline at the same temperature and humidity at 24 h after application. Volatility from 2,4-D DMA and 2,4-D choline increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40 C. However, volatility from 2,4-D choline was lower than observed from 2,4-D DMA. Volatility from 2,4-D choline at 40 C increased from 0.00458 to 0.0263 µg m−3 and from 0.00341 to 0.025 µg m−3 when humidity increased from 20% to 50% at 72 and 96 h after treatment, respectively, whereas, volatility from 2,4-D DMA tended to be higher at 20% RH compared with 50% RH. Air concentration of dicamba diglycolamine was similar at all time points when measured at 40 C and 20% RH. By 96 h after treatment, there was a trend for lower air concentration of dicamba compared with earlier timings. This method using volatility chambers provided good repeatability with low variability across replications, experiments, and herbicides.
Individuals with schizophrenia have deficits in social cognition that are associated with poor functional outcome. Unfortunately, current treatments result in only modest improvement in social cognition. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide with pro-social effects, has significant benefits for social cognition in the general population. However, studies examining the efficacy of oxytocin in schizophrenia have yielded inconsistent results. One reason for inconsistency may be that oxytocin has typically not been combined with psychosocial interventions. It may be necessary for individuals with schizophrenia to receive concurrent psychosocial treatment while taking oxytocin to have the context needed to make gains in social cognitive skills.
The current study tested this hypothesis in a 24-week (48 session) double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that combined oxytocin and Cognitive-Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST), which included elements from Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT). Participants included 62 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (placebo n = 31; oxytocin n = 31) who received 36 IU BID, with supervised administration 45 min prior to sessions on CBSST group therapy days. Participants completed a battery of measures administered at 0, 12, and 24 weeks that assessed social cognition.
CBSST generally failed to enhance social cognition from baseline to end of study, and there was no additive benefit of oxytocin beyond the effects of CBSST alone.
Findings suggest that combined CBSST and oxytocin had minimal benefit for social cognition, adding to the growing literature indicating null effects of oxytocin in multi-dose trials. Methodological and biological factors may contribute to inconsistent results across studies.
Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Focal cartilage injuries of the knee joint are common and present a treatment challenge due to minimal intrinsic repair. Cartilage tissue engineering techniques currently used in clinical practice are expensive, cumbersome, and often ineffective in patients with mechanical or medical comorbidities. To address these issues, we developed an acellular nanofibrous scaffold with encapsulated growth factors designed to enhanced articular cartilage repair. Our goal is to evaluate this technology in vitro and pilot a large animal model for eventual translation into human subjects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Hyaluronic acid (HA, 65 kDa) will be methacrylated (~40% modification, MeHA) and conjugated with cell-adhesive (RGD) groups. A solution of 4% wt/vol MeHA, 2% wt/vol polyethylene oxide (900 kDa), 0.05% wt/vol Irgacure 2959, and 0.005% wt/vol stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and/or transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) will be prepared in ddH2O. The solution will be electrospun onto a rotating mandrel to achieve a dry scaffold thickness of 0.5 mm. The scaffold matt will be UV cross-linked and 5 mm-diameter samples will be cut out. Four groups of scaffolds will be prepared: MeHA, MeHA+SDF, MeHA+TGF, MeHA+SDF+TGF. All groups will be evaluated for fiber diameter, swell thickness, equilibrium compressive modulus, degradation rate, and growth factor release rate over 4 weeks (n=10). Scaffolds will also be seeded with juvenile porcine MSCs (5×104) in 200 μL of medium incubated for 24 hours. Seeded scaffolds will be evaluated for equilibrium compressive modulus, cell infiltration, and chondrogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks (n=10). Scaffolds will then be evaluated in a juvenile Yucatan minipig cartilage defect model. In total, 6 animals will undergo bilateral knee surgery to create four 4 mm-diameter full-thickness cartilage defects in each trochlear grove. All defects will receive microfracture to release marrow elements. Each knee will receive 2 scaffolds of the same group (replicates) with paired microfracture controls, resulting in a sample size of 3. Animals will be sacrificed at 12 weeks and defects will be evaluated via non-destructive indentation testing for mechanical properties, microCT for defect fill and subchondral bone morphology, and histology for ICRS II Visual Histological Assessment Scoring. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary studies have shown reliable replication of electrospun MeHA scaffolds. We anticipate cross-linking density to correlate positively with compressive modulus, and negatively with swell thickness, degradation rate, and growth factor release rate. We anticipate the addition of SDF-1α and TGF-β3 to increase cell infiltration and chondrogenesis, respectively, within seeded scaffolds. Similarly, we expect minipig defects treated with growth factor-releasing scaffolds to show greater mechanical properties, defect fill, and ICRS II score compared with MeHA scaffolds without growth factor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study has the potential to show how an HA-based cell-free scaffold can be augmented with 2 growth factors that act synergistically to improve cartilage repair in a large animal model. This technology would improve upon the cell-free scaffolds already used clinically for autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis and is directly translatable.
Low-density, highly porous graphene/graphene oxide (GO) based-foams have shown high performance in energy absorption applications, even under high compressive deformations. In general, foams are very effective as energy dissipative materials and have been widely used in many areas such as automotive, aerospace and biomedical industries. In the case of graphene-based foams, the good mechanical properties are mainly attributed to the intrinsic graphene and/or GO electronic and mechanical properties. Despite the attractive physical properties of graphene/GO based-foams, their structural and thermal stabilities are still a problem for some applications. For instance, they are easily degraded when placed in flowing solutions, either by the collapsing of their layers or just by structural disintegration into small pieces. Recently, a new and scalable synthetic approach to produce low-density 3D macroscopic GO structure interconnected with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymeric chains (pGO) was proposed. A controlled amount of PDMS is infused into the freeze-dried foam resulting into a very rigid structure with improved mechanical properties, such as tensile plasticity and toughness. The PDMS wets the graphene oxide sheets and acts like a glue bonding PDMS and GO sheets. In order to obtain further insights on mechanisms behind the enhanced mechanical pGO response we carried out fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Based on MD results, we build up a structural model that can explain the experimentally observed mechanical behavior.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster.
We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster. The computational model outputted the time course of community functioning before, during, and after a disaster, which was used to calculate resistance, recovery, and resilience for all US counties.
The conceptual model explicitly separated resilience from community functioning and identified all key components for each, which were translated into a system dynamics computational model with connections and feedbacks. The components were represented by publicly available measures at the county level. Baseline community functioning, resistance, recovery, and resilience evidenced a range of values and geographic clustering, consistent with hypotheses based on the disaster literature.
The work is transparent, motivates ongoing refinements, and identifies areas for improved measurements. After validation, such a model can be used to identify effective investments to enhance community resilience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:127–137)
Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are common measures, but are determined using various blood sampling methods, employed under many different experimental conditions. This study established whether measures of oral glucose tolerance and oral glucose-derived insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity indices; ISI) differ when calculated from venous v. arterialised blood. Critically, we also established whether any differences between sampling methods are consistent across distinct metabolic conditions (after rest v. after exercise). A total of ten healthy men completed two trials in a randomised order, each consisting of a 120-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), either at rest or post-exercise. Blood was sampled simultaneously from a heated hand (arterialised) and an antecubital vein of the contralateral arm (venous). Under both conditions, glucose time-averaged AUC was greater from arterialised compared with venous plasma but importantly, this difference was larger after rest relative to after exercise (0·99 (sd 0·46) v. 0·56 (sd 0·24) mmol/l, respectively; P<0·01). OGTT-derived ISIMatsuda and ISICederholm were lower when calculated from arterialised relative to venous plasma and the arterialised–venous difference was greater after rest v. after exercise (ISIMatsuda: 1·97 (sd 0·81) v. 1·35 (sd 0·57) arbitrary units (au), respectively; ISICederholm : 14·76 (sd 7·83) v. 8·70 (sd 3·95) au, respectively; both P<0·01). Venous blood provides lower postprandial glucose concentrations and higher estimates of insulin sensitivity, compared with arterialised blood. Most importantly, these differences between blood sampling methods are not consistent after rest v. post-exercise, preventing standardised venous-to-arterialised corrections from being readily applied.