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With this paper we begin a study of the structure of the group algebra RG of a finite group G over the ring of algebraic integers R in an algebraic number field k. The basic question is whether non-isomorphic groups can have isomorphic algebras over R. We shall show that this is impossible if G is
The simplest example of two non-isomorphic groups with the same character tables is provided by the non-abelian groups of order p3, p ≠ 2. Let G1 be the one of exponent p and let G2 be the other. If Q denotes the field of rational numbers, then Berman (2) has shown that QG1 ≈ QG2, where QGi denotes the rational group algebra. In this note we shall show that the corresponding statement is false for ZGi where Z is the ring of rational integers. More explicitly we shall show that ZG1 does not contain a unit of order p2 so that it is impossible to embed ZG2 in ZG1.
40% of people with dementia have disturbed sleep but there are currently no known effective treatments. Studies of sleep hygiene and light therapy have not been powered to indicate feasibility and acceptability and have shown 40–50% retention. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session manualized evidence-based non-pharmacological therapy; Dementia RElAted Manual for Sleep; STrAtegies for RelaTives (DREAMS-START) for sleep disturbance in people with dementia.
We conducted a parallel, two-armed, single-blind randomized trial and randomized 2:1 to intervention: Treatment as Usual. Eligible participants had dementia and sleep disturbances (scoring ≥4 on one Sleep Disorders Inventory item) and a family carer and were recruited from two London memory services and Join Dementia Research. Participants wore an actiwatch for two weeks pre-randomization. Trained, clinically supervised psychology graduates delivered DREAMS-START to carers randomized to intervention; covering Understanding sleep and dementia; Making a plan (incorporating actiwatch information, light exposure using a light box); Daytime activity and routine; Difficult night-time behaviors; Taking care of your own (carer's) sleep; and What works? Strategies for the future. Carers kept their manual, light box, and relaxation recordings post-intervention. Outcome assessment was masked to allocation. The co-primary outcomes were feasibility (≥50% eligible people consenting to the study) and acceptability (≥75% of intervention group attending ≥4 intervention sessions).
In total, 63out of 95 (66%; 95% CI: 56–76%) eligible referrals consented between 04/08/2016 and 24/03/2017; 62 (65%; 95% CI: 55–75%) were randomized, and 37 out of 42 (88%; 95% CI: 75–96%) adhered to the intervention.
DREAM-START for sleep disorders in dementia is feasible and acceptable.
As the population ages, it is increasingly important to use effective short cognitive tests for suspected dementia. We aimed to review systematically brief cognitive tests for suspected dementia and report on their validation in different settings, to help clinicians choose rapid and appropriate tests.
Electronic search for face-to-face sensitive and specific cognitive tests for people with suspected dementia, taking ≤ 20 minutes, providing quantitative psychometric data.
22 tests fitted criteria. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) had good psychometric properties in primary care. In the secondary care settings, MMSE has considerable data but lacks sensitivity. 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT), Brief Alzheimer's Screen, HVLT, and 7 Minute Screen have good properties for detecting dementia but need further validation. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment are effective to detect dementia with Parkinson's disease and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) is useful for all dementias when shorter tests are inconclusive. Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment scale (RUDAS) is useful when literacy is low. Tests such as Test for Early Detection of Dementia, Test Your Memory, Cognitive Assessment Screening Test (CAST) and the recently developed ACE-III show promise but need validation in different settings, populations, and dementia subtypes. Validation of tests such as 6CIT, Abbreviated Mental Test is also needed for dementia screening in acute hospital settings.
Practitioners should use tests as appropriate to the setting and individual patient. More validation of available tests is needed rather than development of new ones.
To date, no study has directly and simultaneously measured the discrepancy between what people actually eat and what they report eating under observation in the context of energy balance (EB). The present study aimed to objectively measure the ‘extent’ and ‘nature’ of misreporting of dietary intakes under conditions in which EB and feeding behaviour were continuously monitored. For this purpose, a total of fifty-nine adults were recruited for 12 d, involving two 3 d overt phases and two 3 d covert phases of food intake measurement in a randomised cross-over design. Subjects had ad libitum access to a variety of familiar foods. Food intake was covertly measured using a feeding behaviour suite to establish actual energy and nutrient intakes. During the overt phases, subjects were instructed to self-report food intake using widely accepted methods. Misreporting comprised two separate and synchronous phenomena. Subjects decreased energy intake (EI) when asked to record their food intake (observation effect). The effect was significant in women ( − 8 %, P< 0·001) but not in men ( − 3 %, P< 0·277). The reported EI was 5 to 21 % lower (reporting effect) than the actual intake, depending on the reporting method used. Semi-quantitative techniques gave larger discrepancies. These discrepancies were identical in men and women and non-macronutrient specific. The ‘observation’ and ‘reporting’ effects combined to constitute total misreporting, which ranged from 10 to 25 %, depending on the intake measurement assessed. When studied in a laboratory environment and EB was closely monitored, subjects under-reported their food intake and decreased the actual intake when they were aware that their intake was being monitored.
A part of the recent ferment in religious studies is the new attention being given to the nature and place of the introductory course. It appears that there is now a rather wide and growing conviction that the traditional introductory courses do not accomplish what should be done in a course designed to give students a basic understanding of the field of religion and the role of religion in human experience and culture. The three dominant models now under heavy criticism are the Old and New Testament sequence and the semester survey courses in the Judeo-Christian tradition and world religions.
There also appears to be increasing sentiment that no single course can be expected to do the job of the introductory course; therefore, many (especially the larger) departments, both old and new, are now offering several options to their students — including courses in the various traditions, East and West, as well as courses dealing with approaches to the study of religion and contemporary religious problems.
The idea of offering various options to students taking their initial course in religion is doubtless based on a genuine concern to free departments from the older patterns dominated by sectarian seminary models. (In Protestant colleges this was primarily Old and New Testament; in Catholic colleges, theology and apologetics.) Yet another factor appears to be at work—viz., the not unimportant fact that it is difficult for a diverse group of scholars in the expanding departments, including historians, philosophical theologians, biblical critics, and those pursuing the methods of the social sciences, to agree upon and to teach a common course.
Depression is a common and costly comorbidity in dementia. There are very few data on the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants for depression in dementia and their effects on carer outcomes.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine compared with placebo for depression in dementia.
A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial with a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis (trial registration: ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38). The primary cost-effectiveness analysis compared differences in treatment costs for patients receiving sertraline, mirtazapine or placebo with differences in effectiveness measured by the primary outcome, total Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) score, over two time periods: 0–13 weeks and 0–39 weeks. The secondary evaluation was a cost-utility analysis using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) computed from the Euro-Qual (EQ-5D) and societal weights over those same periods.
There were 339 participants randomised and 326 with costs data (111 placebo, 107 sertraline, 108 mirtazapine). For the primary outcome, decrease in depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective compared with placebo. However, examining secondary outcomes, the time spent by unpaid carers caring for participants in the mirtazapine group was almost half that for patients receiving placebo (6.74 v. 12.27 hours per week) or sertraline (6.74 v. 12.32 hours per week). Informal care costs over 39 weeks were £1510 and £1522 less for the mirtazapine group compared with placebo and sertraline respectively.
In terms of reducing depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective for treating depression in dementia. However, mirtazapine does appear likely to have been cost-effective if costing includes the impact on unpaid carers and with quality of life included in the outcome. Unpaid (family) carer costs were lower with mirtazapine than sertraline or placebo. This may have been mediated via the putative ability of mirtazapine to ameliorate sleep disturbances and anxiety. Given the priority and the potential value of supporting family carers of people with dementia, further research is warranted to investigate the potential of mirtazapine to help with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia and in supporting carers.
The years 1790 to 1870 are an extraordinarily rich period in Western culture. They encompass the latter years of the Enlightenment and the various critical responses to it, including writers associated with the counter-Enlightenment, the early German romantic circle in Berlin, and the flourishing of German philosophical Idealism and French traditionalism, all offering distinctive critiques of Enlightenment reason, liberalism, and individualism. Later there emerged both left- and right-wing movements of neo-Hegelianism, followed after 1860 by a variety of schools of neo-Kantian philosophy that flourished in Europe. What is significant for our purposes here is that all of these philosophical currents provoked religious and theological responses. Some are now recognized as classic critiques of Western theistic religion (see Chapters 16, 17, 22). Others proved to be impressive speculative revisions of religion, often based on principles quite independent of the theological traditions (see Chapter 17).
A third response to these new challenges, and the one described in this chapter, generally was more conservative, maintaining an allegiance to a historic religious tradition. These writers often put modern critical philosophy itself (e.g., Hume, Kant, and Hegel) in the service of their more traditional apologetic. It is, therefore, important to distinguish these writers both from the radical critics of religion and the writers who were engaged in the speculative revision and defense of religion as a generic aspect of human life. By contrast, the third group of writers was concerned to defend a positive (i.e., historical) revelation and religious tradition. At the same time, they often sought to develop traditional forms of belief so as to show their continuing meaning and relevance, as well as their compatibility with developments in philosophy, science, and historical research.
In this article, we add to the evolving literature examining the importance of religious orientation and political elite behavior. We use data on the religious affiliations of United States House of Representative members to test the influence of religion on military funding for the “War on Terror.” Our findings indicate that, even after controlling for traditional political factors, such as ideology and partisanship, representatives' religious backgrounds often played a role in support for this bill. Roman Catholics, African-American Protestants, and those of other religions and the non-religious were more strongly opposed to funding for military intervention than mainline Protestants, even after controlling for other factors. This article provides a further look at the influence of religion and suggests that factors outside the traditional political dynamics may also be important in examining elite behaviors.
To evaluate whether longitudinal insurer claims data allow reliable identification of elevated hospital surgical site infection (SSI) rates.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in US hospitals performing at least 80 procedures in 2005. Hospitals were assigned to deciles by using case mix–adjusted probabilities of having an SSI-related inpatient or outpatient claim code within 60 days of surgery. We then reviewed medical records of randomly selected patients to assess whether chart-confirmed SSI risk was higher in hospitals in the worst deciles compared with the best deciles.
Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG in these hospitals in 2005.
We evaluated 114,673 patients who underwent CABG in 671 hospitals. In the best decile, 7.8% (958/12,307) of patients had an SSI-related code, compared with 24.8% (2,747/11,068) in the worst decile (P<.001). Medical record review confirmed SSI in 40% (388/980) of those with SSI-related codes. In the best decile, the chart-confirmed annual SSI rate was 3.2%, compared with 9.4% in the worst decile, with an adjusted odds ratio of SSI of 2.7 (confidence interval, 2.2–3.3; P<.001) for CABG performed in a worst-decile hospital compared with a best-decile hospital.
Claims data can identify groups of hospitals with unusually high or low post-CABG SSI rates. Assessment of claims is more reproducible and efficient than current surveillance methods. This example of secondary use of routinely recorded electronic health information to assess quality of care can identify hospitals that may benefit from prevention programs.
Specimens of brick and mortar taken from the Hagia Sophia Basilica in Istanbul, Turkey, are being analyzed as part of an investigation of the construction history and present state of structural stability of the building. The analysis, covering both chemical composition and physical properties, involves a suite of instrumental methods including quantitative X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and automated image analysis of polished sections under SEM. These conventional methods are being supplemented by neutron diffraction and neutron and Xray small angle scattering. Preliminary results suggest the presence of cementitious materials including plombierite and tetracalcium aluminum carbonate in the mortar as well as calcium carbonate. The mortar contains significant amount of brick dust and also large chunks of brick as coarse aggregate. Given the pozzolanic nature of brick dust, it is possible that the mortar is actually not a conventional carbonated lime material, but rather a proto-concrete. The type of masonry construction involving very wide mortar joints, comparable to the width of the bricks, suggests that the Byzantine architects took advantage of this property of the mortar. This sophisticated materials technology may help to explain how the Basilica was constructed in such a short time period, and also to allow us to understand and model subsequent structural problems, including major deformations of the main piers. Also, the feasibility of dating by radiocarbon and thermoluminescence methods is being investigated to determine which parts of the elaborate buttress system are the original Byzantine structure as opposed to later Ottoman additions.
Present knowledge and understanding of deformation mechanisms, mechanical properties, and dislocations in Laves phases are reviewed. Although the amount of study applied to alloys containing these compounds has been relatively limited, several systems with promising high-temperature properties have been identified, including alloys hardened by binary chromides, ternary aluminides, and ternary silicides. Studies of model alloy systems have suggested possible approaches to increase the room-temperature ductility and toughness of Laves phases. Fundamental studies of the effects of stoichiometry, alloying, atom sizes, electronic structures, stacking fault energy, and other variables on dislocation mobility are needed.
Ti-Cr alloys near the TiCr2 composition have been studied to determine the single-phase Laves field and the associated defects accompanying off-stoichiometry. A combination of metallography, x-ray diffraction, lattice parameter measurements, density measurements and electron microprobe analysis have been used to establish a narrow single-phase region extending towards Ti-rich compositions. All three Laves crystal structures (C14, C36 and C15) were found to exist at different temperatures. Hardness and fracture toughness values determined by Vickers microindentation were studied as a function of alloy composition. Effects of adding Fe, Nb, Mo, and V to TiCr2 on lattice parameter, crystal structure, hardness and fracture toughness are reported.
Systematic studies of alloys based on TiCr2 have been performed in order to improve the toughness of Laves phase intermetallics. The extent to which alloy compositions and annealing treatments influence the toughness was quantified by Vickers indentation. The single-phase Laves behavior was first established by studying stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiCr2. Next, alloying effects were investigated with ternary Laves phases based on TiCr2. Different microstructures of two-phase alloys consisting of (Ti,Cr)-bcc+TiCr2 were also examined. Various toughening theories based on vacancies, site-substitutions, crystal structure (C14, C36, or C15) stabilization, and the presence of a second phase were evaluated. The most effective factors improving the toughness of TiCr2 were determined, and toughening mechanisms are suggested.
The 1870s were the high noon of nineteenth-century scientific rationalism in Europe. In the succeeding years to 1914 several important critiques of religion were advanced by philosophers and influential men of letters in France, England, and Germany.
THE CRITIQUE OF RELIGION IN FRANCE
In France, August Comte (1798–1857) was the leading proponent of mid- and late nineteenth-century scientific positivism. He also proved a formative critic of the European religious tradition. He declared it no longer credible and sought to replace Christianity with a religion that he baptised the Religion of Humanity. His writings on religion continued to have influence in Europe and North America in the latter decades of the nineteenth century.
While Comte disavowed Christianity, he undertook to establish a religion on the scientific principles enunciated in the six volumes of his Cours de philosophie positive (1830–42) (The Positive Philosophy of August Comte, 1853). In later writings, such as the four-volume Systéme de politique positive (1851–4) (The System of Positive Polity, 1875–7) and the Catéchisme positiviste, 1852 (The Catechism of Positive Religion, 1858), Comte brings together his positive philosophy (see chs. I and 18) and his vision of the Religion of Humanity. Some of his disciples repudiated the latter as a wholly foreign and superfluous addition to Comte’s positivism. It is clear from his earliest writings, however, that the creation of a new humanistic religion was integral to Comte’s positive programme. He was impressed by Catholicism’s proven social efficacy, and the Religion of Humanity can be viewed as an effort to simulate but secularise Catholic cult and organisation.
In the period 1870 to 1914 there emerged new philosophical defences of religious experience and belief and new philosophies of faith. These programmes undertake a critique of the then dominant scientific positivism and its materialist and behaviourist doctrines. They can best be set out in the work of representative thinkers in four different contexts: in France, in Britain and the United States, and in Germany.
THE DEFENCE OF RELIGIOUS FAITH IN FRANCE
In France these new spiritualist philosophies trace their beginnings to a number of influential philosophers earlier in the century, such as François-Pierre Maine de Biran (1766–1824). He had argued that the study of human consciousness must begin with the distinctive experience of the human will and its efforts, without which perception, memory, habit, and judgement remain inexplicable. A true philosophy insists on free will and deliberative action, and points to an exigency or need for faith and religion. These interests are later pursued in the work of Emile Boutroux (1845–1921) and Henri Bergson (1859–1941). In his De la contingence des lois de la nature (1874), Boutroux attacks all forms of monistic materialism and determinism. He argues that natural laws alone are, finally, inadequate explanations, as is shown when one moves from the laws of one science to another, for example, from physics to biology to sociology and history. In Ideé de la loi naturelle (1895), Boutroux further argues that the activity of the human mind is holistic, necessarily engaging the entire person, and this activity portends certain spiritual needs that issue in such creative activities as art, morality, and religion.
My purpose here, apart from convincing you that John Dewey was quite possibly right about American entry into World War I, is to address the repression and mutilation of pragmatism by left-wing intellectuals in the twentieth century. These would seem to be very different purposes, but in fact they are the same. If we are to understand how pragmatism acquired its unsavory reputation among leftists everywhere, we must go back to 1917, when Randolph Bourne denounced not only Dewey's decision in favor of American entry but also pragmatism itself as the source of that decision. These almost ancient denunciations would not matter very much, except that they are repeated in every subsequent account of the American Left in World War I, and are recalled if not reiterated in every subsequent critique of pragmatism – they still determine our thinking about Dewey, about pragmatism, and about the war. Revisiting this primal scene allows us to ask why. It allows us to convert the following statement, which still serves as a left-wing credential, into a question: Dewey's support for American entry into the Great War demonstrates that pragmatism is a philosophy of acquiescence to “the existing fact,” a philosophy that must validate capitalism, accept imperialism, and repudiate socialism.