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A psychological need is a condition of an organism that must be attained or maintained in order to preserve wellbeing and adaptive psychological functioning. Psychological needs are proactive, in that they promote engagement with the environment to satisfy the needs (Reeve, 2015). Recently, Dweck (2017) proposed two criteria for a “basic” need: (1) The goals that serve to satisfy the needs are high in value and universal in scope; and (2) successful attainment of goals related to a need is important for both immediate and long-term wellbeing. In addition, she identified needs as “basic” only if they are irreducible to other needs, and if they are present at or very soon after birth. Derivative needs develop over the span of early childhood. One problem with this conception is that it is very difficult to clearly establish that a need is “irreducible,” or that it is present at the beginning of life, i.e., that it is not a product of development via person–environment transaction (Lazarus, 1991; Matthews, 2001).
The Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research covers core areas of research in perception with an emphasis on its application to real-world environments. Topics include multisensory processing of information, time perception, sustained attention, and signal detection, as well as pedagogical issues surrounding the training of applied perception researchers. In addition to familiar topics, such as perceptual learning, the Handbook focuses on emerging areas of importance, such as human-robot coordination, haptic interfaces, and issues facing societies in the twenty-first century (such as terrorism and threat detection, medical errors, and the broader implications of automation). Organized into sections representing major areas of theoretical and practical importance for the application of perception psychology to human performance and the design and operation of human-technology interdependence, it also addresses the challenges to basic research, including the problem of quantifying information, defining cognitive resources, and theoretical advances in the nature of attention and perceptual processes.