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Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood (n 278), urine (n 298) and prostate tissue (n 55) were determined among men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. The association between antioxidant intake and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and urine was determined using linear regression, adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer aggressiveness and smoking status. Greater antioxidant intake was found to be associated with lower urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, with a 10 % increase in antioxidant intake corresponding to an unadjusted 1·1 % decrease in urinary 8-isoprostane levels (95 % CI −1·7, −0·3 %; P value<0·01) and an adjusted 0·6 % decrease (95 % CI −1·4, 0·2 %; P value=0·16). In benign prostate tissue, thioredoxin 1 was inversely associated with antioxidant intake (P=0·02). No significant associations were found for other blood or urinary biomarkers or for malignant prostate tissue. These results indicate that antioxidant intake may be associated with less oxidative stress among men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Eight cultivation programs with several equipment combinations were compared with each other and with an atrazine plus pendimethalin herbicide program with and without supplemental cultivation from 1992 to 1994. In two of the three years, cultivation with a rotary hoe or tine weeder reduced weed seedling density by 39 to 74%. Tine weeding was more effective than rotary hoeing in 1992. Rotary hoeing or tine weeding reduced corn populations by an average of 6%. Weed control by different types of inter-row cultivators varied little, except that an in-row cultivator provided better control than a rolling cultivator in two years and better control than a shovel cultivator in one year. Weeds establishing from seeds were better controlled by herbicides in all three years, but weeds establishing from roots, rhizomes, and tubers were controlled as well or better by cultivation. Weed control was sometimes better using herbicides plus cultivation than with herbicides alone, but the combination damaged the crop in two of the three years. Cost of mechanical treatments which combined inter-row cultivation with rotary hoeing or tine weeding differed from that for the herbicide treatment by less than 2%. Yields of the best mechanical treatment and the herbicide treatment were nearly equal in all years, but the best mechanical regime varied between years. Consequently, mean net return was moderately higher for the herbicide treatment.
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