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Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is perhaps the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) smallholder systems for food security and household income. Although a wide choice of varieties is available, smallholder farmers in western Kenya realize yields that are low and variable since they operate in risky production environments. Significant seasonal variations exist in rainfall and severity of pests and diseases. This situation is worsened by the low and declining soil fertility, coupled with low capacity of farmers to purchase production inputs such as fertilizers, fungicides and insecticides, and land scarcity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether growing multiple-bean varieties instead of a single variety can enable farmers enhance yield stability over seasons and ensure food security. Five common bean varieties were evaluated in multiple farms for 11 seasons at Kapkerer in Nandi County, western Kenya. Data were collected on grain yield, days to 50% flowering and major diseases. In addition, daily rainfall was recorded throughout the growing seasons. The five varieties were combined in all possible ways to create 31 single- and multiple-bean production strategies. The strategies were evaluated for grain yield performance and yield stability over seasons to determine the risk of not attaining a particular yield target. Results indicated that cropping multiple-bean varieties can be an effective way for reducing production risks in heterogeneous smallholder systems. Yield stability can be greatly enhanced across diverse environments, leading to improved food security, especially for the resource-poor smallholder farmers operating in risk-prone environments. Although the results show that some of the single-bean variety strategies were high yielding, their yield stability was generally lower than those of multiple strategies. Resource-poor risk averse farmers can greatly increase the probability of exceeding their yield targets by cropping multiple-bean varieties with relatively low yields but high grain yield stability. Trading-off high grain yield for yield stability might be an important strategy for minimizing bean production risks.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Approximately 80% of adolescents do not meet the current national guidelines of engaging in 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily. Physical activity is widely recognized as being beneficial for healthy growth as well as important for good mental health and fitness. Interventions are needed that promote and encourage physical activity among this population to reduce the risk of obesity and to encourage maintenance of a healthy weight. Since adolescents enjoy digital technologies, robotic-assisted platforms might be a novel, innovative and engaging mechanism to deliver physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the potential acceptability of robotic-assisted exercise coaching among diverse youth. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a pilot study that used a cross-sectional survey design. Adolescents ages 12-17 were recruited at 3 community-based sites. We obtained written informed consent from participants’ parents and guardians as well as assent from participants. We demonstrated the robotic system human interface (also known as the robotic human trainer) to groups of adolescents. We delivered the exercise coaching in real time via an iPad tablet placed atop a mobile robotic wheel base and controlled remotely by the coach using an iOS device or computer. After the demonstration participants were asked to complete a 28- item survey that included questions about socio demographics, smoking history, weight, exercise habits, and depression history. The survey also included the 8- item Technology Acceptance Scale (TAS). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (N = 190) were 55% (103/189) male, 43% (81/190) racial minority, 6% (11/190) Hispanic, and 28% (54/190) lived in a lower-income community. The mean age of participants was 15.0 years (SD=2.0). Approximately 25% (47/190) of participants met national recommendations for physical activity. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.8(SD_4.0) kg/m2. Of note, 18% (35/190) had experienced depression now or in the past. The mean Technology Acceptance Scale (TAS) total score was 32.8 (SD 7.8) of a possible score of 40, indicating high potential receptivity to the technology. No significant associations were detected between TAS score and gender, age, racial minority status, median income of participant’s neighborhood, BMI, meeting national recommendations for physical activity levels, or depression history. Of interest, 68% (129/190) of participants agreed that they and their friends were likely to use the robot to help them exercise. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot survey study demonstrated that among a racially and socioeconomically diverse group of adolescents, robotic-assisted exercise coaching is likely acceptable. The discovery that all demographic groups represented in this sample had similarly high receptivity to the robotic human exercise trainer is encouraging for ultimate considerations of intervention scalability and reach among diverse adolescent populations. Next steps include a study to assess the impact of robotic-assisted exercise coaching on adolescents’ exercise and health outcomes.
We have measured precise (± 3 km/s) radial velocities for 180 stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, spanning the region R=0 to just beyond the nominal tidal radius. We perform a “classical” analysis of the resulting velocity dispersion profile. A mass-follows-light King model is ruled out, while a constant velocity dispersion model remains a good fit out to the limits of our dataset. For the constant velocity dispersion case, we calculate a velocity dispersion of 11.1 ± 0.7 km/s, which implies a central M/L/[M/L]⊙ ratio of 7.6 ± 1.0.
The borderline between the periods commonly termed "medieval" and "Renaissance", or "medieval" and "early modern", is one of the most hotly, energetically and productively contested faultlines in literary history studies. The essays presented in this volume both build upon and respond to the work of Professor Helen Cooper, a scholar who has long been committed to exploring the complex connectionsand interactions between medieval and Renaissance literature. The contributors re-examine a range of ideas, authors and genres addressed in her work, including pastoral, chivalric romance, early English drama, and the writings of Chaucer, Langland, Spenser and Shakespeare. As a whole, the volume aims to stimulate active debates on the ways in which Renaissance writers used, adapted, and remembered aspects of the medieval.
Andrew King is Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at University College, Cork; Matthew Woodcock is Senior Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at the University of East Anglia.
Contributors: Joyce Boro, Aisling Byrne, Nandini Das, Mary C. Flannery, Alexandra Gillespie, Andrew King, Megan G. Leitch, R.W. Maslen, Jason Powell,Helen Vincent, James Wade, Matthew Woodcock
The development and spread of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed has increased the use of dicamba as an alternative herbicide treatment. Research evaluated suspected glyphosate-resistant horseweed populations from DeKalb (GR-1) and Cherokee (GR-2) counties, Alabama, for response to glyphosate, dicamba, and glyphosate + dicamba. Populations used for resistance determination were tested at rosette and bolt growth stages. Glyphosate resistance evaluation treatments ranged from 0 to 36.0 kg ae ha−1. Data confirmed that GR-1 and GR-2 horseweed populations were 3.0 to 38 times more resistant to glyphosate than the susceptible population, according to population, data type, and growth stage at treatment. GR-1 and GR-2 populations were further evaluated for response to dicamba. Dicamba was applied at 0 to 1.12 kg ai ha−1, both with and without the addition of glyphosate at 1.12 kg ae ha−1. All populations had similar tolerance to dicamba, with the exception of GR-2 treated at the rosette growth stage, which had ~2-fold greater tolerance. When glyphosate was tank-mixed with dicamba, the response of GR populations was similar to that of dicamba alone. Therefore, any potential resistance-management benefit of tank-mixing dicamba with glyphosate may be negated when one is attempting to control GR horseweed. Conversely, adding glyphosate to dicamba drastically enhanced control of the susceptible population at both growth stages.
A small limestone half-figure from Alan Rowe's 1957 excavations in Cyrene was recently found to have the word ΘEA lightly inscribed on the polos. The authors describe the sarcophagi with which this figure may have been associated, together with the burial artifacts found within them. It is rare to find ΘEA used in this way, although two examples from Eleusis provide useful parallels. One is a votive plaque, the other a large relief, and each portrays the Eleusinian deities whose iconography is discussed here and compared with that of the Cyrene ΘEA example and also other uninscribed Cyrene half-figures.