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Objective: To examine clinical response and symptomatic remission in two studies of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methods: In a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, children 6–12 years of age with ADHD received LDX (30–70 mg/day) or placebo. In an open-label trial, children from previous studies were titrated to optimal dose over 4 weeks and maintained up to 1 year. Primary and secondary efficacy assessments were the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, respectively. Clinical response was defined as ≥30% reduction in ADHD-RS-IV total score with a CGI-I rating of 1 or 2; symptomatic remission was defined by ADHD-RS-IV total score ≤18.
Results: In the 4-week study (N=285), at any postdose assessment, 79.3% achieved response (median 13 days) and 67.1% achieved remission (median 22 days) with LDX versus 29.2% and 23.6% with placebo. In the long-term study (N=251), at any postdose assessment, 96.0% responded and 62.7% maintained response; 88.8% achieved remission and 46.4% maintained remission.
Conclusion: Most children treated with LDX achieved clinical response and symptomatic remission at one time point; once achieved, almost half maintained remission.
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a prodrug stimulant, is indicated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 6–12 years of age and in adults. In shortterm studies, once-daily LDX provided efficacy throughout the day. This study presented here was conducted to assess the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of LDX in 6- to 12-year-olds with ADHD.
This open-label, multicenter, singlearm study enrolled children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria for ADHD. Following 1-week screening and washout periods, subjects were titrated to LDX 30, 50, or 70 mg/day over 4 weeks and placed on maintenance treatment for 11 months. The ADHD Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale measured effectiveness.
Of 272 subjects receiving LDX, 147 completed the study. Most adverse events were mild to moderate and occurred during the first 4 weeks. There were no clinically meaningful changes in blood pressure or electrocardiographic parameters. From baseline to endpoint, mean ADHD Rating Scale scores improved by 27.2 points (P<.0001). Improvements occurred during each of the first 4 weeks, and were maintained throughout. Based on Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores, >80% of subjects at endpoint and >95% of completers at 12 months were rated “improved.”
Long-term 30, 50, and 70 mg/day LDX was generally well tolerated and effective in children with ADHD.
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