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We assessed whether the risk of various psychotic disorders and non-psychotic bipolar disorder (including mania) varied by migrant status, a region of origin, or age-at-migration, hypothesizing that risk would only be elevated for psychotic disorders.
We established a prospective cohort of 1 796 257 Swedish residents born between 1982 and 1996, followed from their 15th birthday, or immigration to Sweden after age 15, until diagnosis, emigration, death, or end of 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model hazard ratios by migration-related factors, adjusted for covariates.
All psychotic disorders were elevated among migrants and their children compared with Swedish-born individuals, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]migrants: 2.20, 95% CI 1.96–2.47; aHRchildren : 2.00, 95% CI 1.79–2.25), affective psychotic disorders (aHRmigrant1.42, 95% CI 1.25–1.63; aHRchildren: 1.22 95% CI 1.07–1.40), and other non-affective psychotic disorders (aHRmigrant: 1.97, 95% CI 1.81–2.14; aHRchildren: 1.68, 95% CI 1.54–1.83). For all psychotic disorders, risks were generally highest in migrants from Africa (i.e. aHRschizophrenia: 5.24, 95% CI 4.26–6.45) and elevated at most ages-of-migration. By contrast, risk of non-psychotic bipolar disorders was lower for migrants (aHR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.52–0.64) overall, and across all ages-of-migration except infancy (aHR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.01–1.42), while risk for their children was similar to the Swedish-born population (aHR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.93–1.08).
Increased risk of psychiatric disorders associated with migration and minority status may be specific to psychotic disorders, with exact risk dependent on the region of origin.
The final rule for the protection of human subjects requires that informed consent be “in language understandable to the subject” and mandates that “the informed consent must be organized in such a way that facilitates comprehension.” This study assessed the readability of Institutional Review Board-approved informed consent forms at our institution, implemented an intervention to improve the readability of consent forms, and measured the first year impact of the intervention.
Readability assessment was conducted on a sample of 217 Institutional Review Board-approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015. A plain language informed consent template was developed and implemented and readability was assessed again after 1 year.
The mean readability of the baseline sample was 10th grade. The mean readability of the post-intervention sample (n=82) was seventh grade.
Providing investigators with a plain language informed consent template and training can promote improved readability of informed consents for research.
Uncertainty (i.e., variable payoffs with unknown probabilities) brings together a number of features of the authors' argument. It leads to present bias, even for completely rational agents with time-consistent preferences. As an evolutionary product of Pleistocene climate instability, humans possess broad adaptations to environmental uncertainty, giving rise to key features of the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD).
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Develop a plain language informed consent template that met IRB and regulatory requirements. Evaluate the effectiveness of the template at improving the readability of informed consents. Field test the informed consent with low health literacy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a retrospective analysis of over 200 UAMS IRB approved, investigator initiated informed consents from 2013 to 2015 to determine the readability before intervention. The mean grade level readabilities were derived from the results of 3 readability formulas (Flesch-Kincaid, SMOG, and Fry) using open-source readability tools. A plain language informed consent template that meets IRB and regulatory requirements was developed, adhering to health literacy best practices for written communication. The template was made available to investigators as an optional resource, and IRB committees were trained on use of the template. In addition, a focus group will be conducted to qualitatively assess understandability of the template with study participants identified as having inadequate health literacy. Data analysis will include readability assessment of IRB approved informed consents post intervention with and without use of the plain language template, as well as qualitative feedback from focus group participants. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The retrospective analysis revealed a mean readability of 10th grade for IRB approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015 (n=217). The readability of the developed plain language template was 5th grade. Preliminary post-intervention results show adoption of the template by investigators (n=16) resulted in informed consents with a mean readability of 7th grade (range 6–9th grade), compared to a mean of 10th grade (range 7–11th grade) for the comparator (“no adoption” group, n=24). Data collection will continue through May 2017. The focus group is forthcoming and results will be included in the poster. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Low health literacy is common in individuals with healthcare disparities and can limit their participation in clinical research. Few studies have examined interventions to address this barrier to research. Preliminary results of this study support the utilization of a plain language informed consent template in investigator-initiated research. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of stakeholder engagement among CTSA leadership, health literacy experts, the institutional review board, investigators, and research subjects in the development and testing of this intervention to make informed consents “understandable to the subject” while containing all required elements.
We describe an on-going HST program aimed at determining the relationship between the nuclear black hole mass and bulge mass in spiral galaxies. We have selected a volume limited sample of 54 nearby spiral galaxies for which we already have ground based emission line rotation curves, CCD surface photometry and radio maps. We are now obtaining HST/STIS longslit observations of each of the galaxies in the sample in order to determine the nuclear Hα rotation curve at high (∼ 0.1) spatial resolution. We will use these data to measure the unresolved dark mass concentration at the nucleus of each object. Here we show the first results from observations of objects in the sample.
We demonstrate quantitative core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy of iron oxide nanoparticles and imaging resolution of Ag nanoparticles in liquid down to 0.24 nm, in both transmission and scanning transmission modes, in a novel, monolithic liquid cell developed for the transmission electron microscope (TEM). At typical SiN membrane thicknesses of 50 nm the liquid-layer thickness has a maximum change of only 30 nm for the entire TEM viewing area of 200×200 µm.