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The Cambrian-Ordovician Diversity Plateau, between the Cambrian Explosion and the Ordovician Radiation, is punctuated by a series of well-documented Laurentian trilobite extinction events. These events define the bounding surfaces of trilobite ‘biomeres’ that correspond to North American stages, including those of the Sunwaptan and Skullrockian. Trilobites show a consistent pattern of recovery across these boundaries, and commonly each extinction and replacement of taxa is interpreted as a single event as changing environmental conditions spurred shoreward migration of shelf or oceanic faunas that displaced established cratonic faunas. Linguliform brachiopods are also abundant in strata of this interval, and we investigate their stratigraphic distribution across the Sunwaptan–Skullrockian Stage boundary in Texas through high-resolution stratigraphic sampling of subtidal sediments. We document complete genus- and species-level turnover of the linguliform brachiopod fauna coincident with trilobite extinction events, suggesting that these brachiopods were affected by the same factors that affected trilobites. The Skullrockian replacement fauna was cosmopolitan, with ties to Gondwana and Kazakhstan and to the Laurentian shelf environment. The timing of appearances of taxa suggests that the faunal migration onto the Laurentian shelf came from elsewhere during a transgression. The disappearance of the Sunwaptan fauna and the arrival of the Skullrockian fauna are distinct events. We suggest that ‘biomere’ events may be complex, and the cause of the extinction is not necessarily the same event that facilitates the appearance of a replacement fauna. We describe one new species, Schizambon langei.
Fomesafen provides effective control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton. However, cotton seedlings can be injured when fomesafen is applied PRE. Therefore, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted at Athens, GA, and at six locations in Alabama and Georgia in 2013 and 2016 to evaluate cotton growth and yield response to fomesafen applied PRE at 70, 140, 280, 560, 1,120, or 2,240 g ai ha−1, and in combination with pendimethalin, diuron, acetochlor, and fluridone at 1×label rates. Greenhouse bioassays indicated that fomesafen reduced cotton height and dry weight with increasing rate in Cecil sandy loam and Tifton loamy sand but not in Greenville sandy clay loam––possibly as a result of this soil’s higher organic matter (OM) and clay content. Fomesafen applied at 2,240 g ai ha−1 reduced cotton stand by as much as 83% compared to the nontreated check (NTC) at all field locations except Alabama’s Macon and Baldwin counties, and 1,120 g ai ha−1 reduced cotton stand only at Pulaski County, GA, by 52%. Cotton height was reduced by the two highest rates of fomesafen at all locations except Clarke County, GA, and Baldwin County, AL. Injury data indicated more visual injury followed increasing fomesafen rates, and high-rate treatments produced more injury in sandier soils. Cotton yield was unaffected by herbicide treatments at any location, except for the 1,120 g ai ha−1 rate at Pulaski County (49% yield loss compared to NTC), 2,240 g ai ha−1 at Pulaski County (72% yield loss), and Tift County (29% yield loss). These data indicated cotton yield should not be negatively affected by fomesafen applied PRE alone within label rates or in combination with pendimethalin, diuron, acetochlor, and fluridone at 1×label rates, although some visual injury, or stand or height reduction may occur early in the growing season.
This paper describes the process of setting up and the early results from a new liaison psychiatry service in primary care for people identified as frequent general practice attenders with long-term conditions or medically unexplained symptoms. Using a rapid evidence synthesis, we identified existing service models, mechanisms to identify and refer patients, and outcomes for the service. Considering this evidence, with local contingencies we defined options and resources. We agreed a model to set up a service in three diverse general practices. An evaluation explored the feasibility of the service and of collecting data for clinical, service and economic outcomes.
High levels of patient and staff satisfaction, and reductions in the utilisation of primary and secondary healthcare, with associated cost savings are reported.
A multidisciplinary liaison psychiatry service integrated in primary care is feasible and may be evaluated using routinely collected data.
It is widely recognized that ‘the individual’ was prioritized by the Thatcher governments. However, there has been little analysis by historians of exactly how the Thatcher government conceptualized ‘the individual’. In this article, we attempt to remedy this deficiency by undertaking a case-study of a key Thatcherite social policy reform: the introduction of ‘personal pensions’. This approach allows us to understand the position of ‘the individual’ on the functional level of Thatcherite policy-making. In doing so, we argue that there was no coherent or fixed Thatcherite concept of the individual. Instead, we identify three fundamental tensions: (i) should individuals be capitalists or consumers; (ii) were they rational or irrational; and (iii) should they be risk-taking entrepreneurs or prudent savers? This reflected, in part, conflicts within the diverse tapestry of post-war neoliberal thought. We demonstrate in this article that these tensions undermined the Thatcher governments’ original attempt to create a society of entrepreneurial investor-capitalists, which in turn cemented their preference for simply maximizing individual freedom of choice within a competitive – yet tightly regulated – market environment.
Deregulation and reregulation of transportation is one of the most significant policy developments of recent years. It is important to understand the impacts of such changes on the availability of transportation services to agriculture, small communities, and rural areas. In this paper the experiences of shipper/receivers, carriers, private carriers, and agricultural truck brokers in Florida, the first state to deregulate nonpassenger motor carrier transport, are examined. Implications of these experiences for the Northeast are drawn. These findings are of particular interest to Maine, the second state to have deregulated nonpassenger transportation.
The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
In this article we argue that the pacification of strategic Rio de Janeiro favelas is a case of what David Harvey calls accumulation by dispossession, allowing for capital accumulation at multiple scales. Drawing on multi-year participant observation, we seek to show the particular form that this process takes as it works through Rio's social and spatial structures. Unlike the mass removals of the 1960s and 1970s, favela families have more recently been displaced through a process of thinning, in the context of a neoliberal development programme centred on a series of mega-events. Removal is carried out through a combination of threats, promises, disinformation, and the intentional generation of insecurity that together constitute a form of psychological terror.
A dorsal valve of an Upper Cambrian lingulate brachiopod exhibits a repair scar on the anterior lateral edge of its larval shell. This species is characterized by an abrupt change in ornamentation from larval to postlarval growth. Shell material secreted in the injured area after the damage occurred exhibits ornamentation that is characteristic of postlarval growth, although equivalent growth exhibits characteristics of the larval stage. A break in the edge of the shell is visible, and the growth lines of the larval and postlarval shell were distorted until the broken area was filled in. Damage to the surface of the shell is interpreted to have been caused by the same event. Modern lingulate brachiopod larvae are planktotrophic and are interpreted to have been so throughout their long geologic history. Therefore, an environmental cause of shell damage seems unlikely and the injuries are interpreted to have been caused by an unknown durophagous predator. This specimen offers evidence that lingulate brachiopod larvae were able to survive shell breakage and repair their shells.
In 1967, all London medical schools were separate institutions based on their teaching hospitals, many of which had moved from their original central sites. Successive attempts at merger met resistance, but by 2000 there were just five undergraduate schools, all incorporated in large multi-faculty colleges with the exception of St George's.
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
In the north-west, Imperial College absorbed St Mary's Hospital in 1989 and in 1997 also took in Charing Cross and Westminster Hospitals (already merged in 1983).
Charing Cross Hospital
Early development of general practice teaching
Charing Cross Hospital medical school started in the mid-nineteenth century at the hospital building near The Strand, London. It was small, taking twenty to thirty new students annually. General practice teaching started in the 1950s when students were invited to stay with a general practitioner (usually an alumnus) for three weeks in their final year. Most practices were outside London (often rural), enabling students to experience the daily life of a general practitioner, including out of hours work and living with his family.
Charing Cross Hospital moved to Fulham in 1974, and the annual school intake increased to 120. The final-year general practice attachment expanded accordingly and the Dean, Professor Glenister, initiated plans for an undergraduate general practice teaching unit. The education committee of the north and west London faculty of the RCGP took great interest in the developments, especially as the GMC was threatening to remove accreditation from schools that did not have departments of general practice.