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Scholars and observers worry that Congress has lost its capacity to perform its functions in the American political system. Drawing on an array of data on Congress’s activities and processes along with in-depth interviews with long-serving lawmakers and high-level staffers, we take stock of how changes to internal processes have affected Congress’s institutional capacities. In doing so, we make two interrelated arguments. First, we argue that Congress can take transformative action whether the legislative process is centralized and leadership-led or whether it is decentralized and committee-led. Second, we argue that Congress is better able than in previous eras to engage in conflict-clarifying representation in order to express and educate the public on the positions of the parties. We conclude that changes to congressional processes in recent years should be viewed as adaptations to the challenges of contemporary lawmaking. These adaptations help preserve Congress’s institutional capacity, but they have undoubtedly had negative consequences for open deliberation and individual member input into legislation.
Majority leaders of the contemporary Congress preside over parties that are more cohesive than at any point in the modern era, and power has been centralized in party leadership offices. Do today’s majority parties succeed in enacting their legislative agendas to a greater extent than the less-cohesive parties of earlier eras? To address this question, we examine votes on all laws enacted from 1973–2016, as well as on the subset of landmark laws identified by Mayhew. In addition, we analyze the efforts of congressional majority parties to pass their agendas from 1985 to 2016. We find that enacting coalitions in recent congresses are nearly as bipartisan as they were in the 1970s. Most laws, including landmark enactments, continue to garner substantial bipartisan support. Furthermore, majority parties have not gotten better at passing their legislative programs. Contemporary congressional majorities actually fail on their agenda items at somewhat higher rates than the less-cohesive majority parties of the 1980s and 1990s. When majority parties succeed on their agenda priorities, they usually do so with support from a majority of the minority party in at least one chamber and with the endorsement of one or more of the minority party’s top leaders.
Existing feed evaluation systems for ruminants assess the feed value in a rather empirical way, with a limited ability to integrate metabolism in a meaningful framework. For the quantitative description of the mechanisms, appropriate biological data can be obtained using in vitro methods. The aim of this paper is to examine the use of modelling and in vitro data to predict digestion processes in vivo. Suitable mathematical methods are required to describe and interpret substrate disappearance profiles or gas production profiles. The derivation of such models is important since this allows a clear definition of the underlying assumptions made. Such assumptions are related to the change in fractional rate of degradation (kd) during incubation that will determine the shape of the profile. Furthermore, the value of the fractional passage rate (kp) is of crucial importance in the prediction of extent of degradation in the rumen. The development and application of models, based on classic microbial growth equations, clearly shows that observed variation in microbial efficiency in batch cultures (including the gas production technique) is not necessarily related to that in vivo. Rather, kp is again a major factor contributing to explanation of variation in microbial efficiency. Similarly, the end products of fermentation (VFA) and the VFA molar proportions can be estimated in vitro, but its direct applicability to the in vivo situation is limited. It is concluded that some potential uses of in vitro techniques are ultimately misleading. Mechanistic models indicate that mechanisms governing microbial efficiency and VFA molar proportions in vitro are not necessarily valid for the in vivo situation. Therefore, the in vitro data cannot be used directly for a uniform system of feed evaluation to predict animal responses. Rather, the in vitro data obtained for substrate degradation may be used in whole rumen models as a basal input value to indicate the degradation potential.
A revision of the North American members of the Leptogium saturninum group (i.e. species with long lower-surface hairs, isidia, and usually smooth upper surface) is presented based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU and nrITS sequence data, together with an extensive morphological study. Three species supported by both molecular and morphological characteristics are recognized: L. acadiense sp. nov. (distinguished by granular saturninum-type isidia, medulla composed of irregularly arranged or perpendicular hyphae), L. cookii sp. nov. (distinguished by cylindrical saturninum-type isidia) and L. hirsutum (distinguished by hirsutum-type isidia and medulla composed of loosely intertwined hyphae). One species supported by morphological characteristics, but for which no molecular data could be generated, is also recognized: L. compactum sp. nov. (distinguished by hirsutum-type isidia and medulla composed of tightly packed hyphae). Finally, L. saturninum (distinguished by granular saturninum-type isidia and medulla composed of perpendicular and parallel hyphae) is supported by morphological characteristics but molecular data from geographically diverse populations, including those near the type locality, indicate that the morphologically defined species is paraphyletic. Leptogium burnetiae is excluded from North American based on morphological study of the type. The species are described and illustrated in detail, and are distinguished morphologically by their isidium development, morphology of mature isidia, and pattern of hyphae in the medulla in transverse sections near lobe margins. A key to the members of the L. saturninum group and related species is also presented.
A high influx of patients during a mass-casualty incident (MCI) may disrupt patient flow in an already overcrowded emergency department (ED) that is functioning beyond its operating capacity. This pilot study examined the impact of a two-step ED triage model using Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) for pre-triage, followed by triage with the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), on patient flow during a MCI simulation exercise.
It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in time intervals nor patient volumes at each patient-flow milestone.
Physicians and nurses participated in a computer-based tabletop disaster simulation exercise. Physicians were randomized into the intervention group using START, then CTAS, or the control group using START alone. Patient-flow milestones including time intervals and patient volumes from ED arrival to triage, ED arrival to bed assignment, ED arrival to physician assessment, and ED arrival to disposition decision were compared. Triage accuracy was compared for secondary purposes.
There were no significant differences in the time interval from ED arrival to triage (mean difference 108 seconds; 95% CI, -353 to 596 seconds; P=1.0), ED arrival to bed assignment (mean difference 362 seconds; 95% CI, -1,269 to 545 seconds; P=1.0), ED arrival to physician assessment (mean difference 31 seconds; 95% CI, -1,104 to 348 seconds; P=0.92), and ED arrival to disposition decision (mean difference 175 seconds; 95% CI, -1,650 to 1,300 seconds; P=1.0) between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the volume of patients to be triaged (32% vs 34%; 95% CI for the difference -16% to 21%; P=1.0), assigned a bed (16% vs 21%; 95% CI for the difference -11% to 20%; P=1.0), assessed by a physician (20% vs 22%; 95% CI for the difference -14% to 19%; P=1.0), and with a disposition decision (20% vs 9%; 95% CI for the difference -25% to 4%; P=.34) between the two groups. The accuracy of triage was similar in both groups (57% vs 70%; 95% CI for the difference -15% to 41%; P=.46).
Experienced triage nurses were able to apply CTAS effectively during a MCI simulation exercise. A two-step ED triage model using START, then CTAS, had similar patient flow and triage accuracy when compared to START alone.
LeeJS, FrancJM. Impact of a Two-step Emergency Department Triage Model with START, then CTAS, on Patient Flow During a Simulated Mass-casualty Incident. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(4):1–7.
The present study aimed to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH) (8 mg/kg) on energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ) and glycaemic response in healthy adult Beagle dogs (n 8; 9·62 (sem 0·31) kg; body condition score 4·5). The study was designed as replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure. The dietary treatments were low carbohydrate (CHO) relative to fat diet (LC; 31 % CHO, 28 % fat) with placebo (0 mg/kg) or MH supplement and high CHO relative to fat diet (HC; 54 % CHO, 11 % fat) with placebo (0 mg/kg) or MH supplement. Dogs were fed to maintain body weight (HC and HC+MH 3625 (sem 295) kJ and LC and LC+MH 3542 (sem 284) kJ). Resting and postprandial (0–4 h; 5–10 h; 11–17 h; 18–23 h) EE and RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry (days 12 or 14). Glycaemic response to a meal (24 h) and plasma MH concentrations were determined on days 12 or 14. Plasma MH followed first-order kinetics, confirming that MH is absorbed and available to the animal. In the presence of high dietary CHO, MH increased postprandial EE (5–10 h only), suggesting MH increased dietary induced thermogenesis. In contrast to earlier reports, MH did not affect serum glucose or insulin in the present study. Irrespective of MH, dogs adapted RQ to diet composition and dogs consuming the LC diet had a greater incremental AUC for glucose, but not insulin, than dogs consuming the HC diet.
This investigation describes preliminary results of in-situ analysis of zinc deposition within an ionic liquid electrolyte utilizing electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC AFM). From the AFM analysis, the morphology of the zinc deposition was analyzed by quantifying the surface roughness using height-height correlation functions. These results will be used to analyze the scattering data obtained from zinc deposition analysis utilizing an electrochemical ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (EC USAXS). The goal of this research is to link the early nucleation and growth behavior to the formation of detrimental morphologies.
According to tradition the New Monastery, later known as Cîteaux, was founded on 21 March 1098. The choice of day was no coincidence as on that day the feast of St Benedict was celebrated. It was also apt, for on moving from Molesme the twenty-one monks under their abbot Robert had left behind the ‘old’ ways of traditional monachism with its emphasis on the elaborate and time-consuming celebration of the Divine Office in order to embrace a ‘new’ interpretation of the Rule, one in which the balance between the three constituent parts of the monastic horarium – prayer, study and work – had been restored. The Rule and its revised implementation were basic to the Cistercian reform and were commented upon both in all early Cistercian texts as well as by a number of contemporary outside observers. The Premonstratensian abbot Philip of Harvengt claimed that with the foundation of Cîteaux the ‘monastic Order, formerly dead, was revived … and the Rule of St Benedict recovered in our times the truth of the letter’. Even some of the Cistercians’ severest critics acknowledged their achievement. The chronicler William of Malmesbury refers to their distress that they were not able to follow ‘the purity of the Rule’ to which he states that they attached great importance by saying, ‘So intent are they on their Rule, that they think not a jot or tittle of it should be disregarded.’ The Norman Benedictine Orderic Vitalis described them as endeavouring ‘to carry out a literal observance of the Rule of Saint Benedict’.
Although the Cistercians did away with many of the accretions to the liturgy that had been introduced over the centuries, the opus Dei – the Work of God – still remained their primary and distinctive occupation, constituting the very raison d’être of monasticism. St Benedict devoted twelve chapters in the Rule to its composition and the manner of celebrating the seven daytime canonical Hours of Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers and Compline, plus the Night Office. The primacy of the Office was endorsed by Bernard of Clairvaux in these words: ‘By our Rule we must put nothing before the Work of God.’
The Elements of Crimes, an example of one of the Rome Statute system's many innovative contributions to international criminal law, were adopted by the Preparatory Commission (PrepComm) for crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes on 30 June 2000, and then by the Assembly of States Parties on 9 September 2002.
Elements of Crimes form an important part of the range of instruments available to the Court. They elaborate the definitions of the Rome Statute crimes and thereby assist the Court in their interpretation and application, including, upon entry into force of the relevant amendments, the crime of aggression. The Elements of Crimes must be read in conjunction with article 30 of the Rome Statute, which sets out the general rules with respect to the ‘mental element’ of each crime, i.e. personal criminal liability and responsibility shall only accrue if the ‘material elements’ of the relevant crime are committed with intent and knowledge.
Although the PrepComm was mandated by Resolution F of the Final Act of the Rome Conference to prepare proposals on the crime of aggression including the elements,5negotiations on the elements of the crime of aggression (hereafter ‘the Elements’) were slow to commence in earnest, both in the PrepComm and in the Special Working Group on the Crime of Aggression (Special Working Group) that took over its mandate. That said, this chapter will illustrate how discussions on the Elements in the context of informal settings and formal meetings of the Assembly of States Parties progressed rapidly and effectively once the Special Working Group had agreed on a draft definition of the crime of aggression in February 2009.
The accelerated aging of unplasticized Cellophane film specimens was conducted at tempe:atures ranging from 80 to 150 °C in a dry, forced-air convection oven for various periods of time. Colorimetric evaluation showed increasing discoloration which could be partially reversed by rinsing in deionized water. The infrared spectra of samples aged within this temperature range show the same changes, dependent upon aging time. This indicates that the species formed in the films at temperatures above and below the boiling point of water are the same, and that the moisture content of the films may affect the reaction rate, but not the mechanisms. The observed data in the visible region fit the standard pseudofirst-order kinetics model and are in excellent agreement with those determined for both the color change of cotton and the UV absorbance of Cellophane under similar conditions.
Thin films of barium titanate (BaTiOs) have been deposited by pulsed-laser ablation onto (001)-oriented MgO substrates. The films were epitactic as evidenced by both x-ray diffraction and ion-channeling techniques. The film surface appeared smooth and contained a low density of particulates. This latter feature is believed to be due to the formation of target pellets having a very high density.