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With this paper we begin a study of the structure of the group algebra RG of a finite group G over the ring of algebraic integers R in an algebraic number field k. The basic question is whether non-isomorphic groups can have isomorphic algebras over R. We shall show that this is impossible if G is
The simplest example of two non-isomorphic groups with the same character tables is provided by the non-abelian groups of order p3, p ≠ 2. Let G1 be the one of exponent p and let G2 be the other. If Q denotes the field of rational numbers, then Berman (2) has shown that QG1 ≈ QG2, where QGi denotes the rational group algebra. In this note we shall show that the corresponding statement is false for ZGi where Z is the ring of rational integers. More explicitly we shall show that ZG1 does not contain a unit of order p2 so that it is impossible to embed ZG2 in ZG1.
Hemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90).
A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort.
In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system.
MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS – A Descriptive Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):230–236.
Credibility and trustworthiness are the bedrock upon which any science is built. The strength of these foundations has been increasingly questioned across the sciences as instances of research misconduct and mounting concerns over the prevalence of detrimental research practices have been identified. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to encourage our scientific community to positively and proactively engage in efforts that foster a healthy and robust industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. We begin by advancing six defining principles that we believe reflect the values of robust science and offer criteria for evaluating proposed efforts to change scientific practices. Recognizing that the contemporary scientific enterprise is a complex and diverse network of actors and institutions, we then conclude by identifying 12 stakeholders who play important roles in achieving a culture of robust science in I-O psychology and offer recommendations for actions we can take as members of these groups to strengthen our science.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for chronic pain patients in a primary care clinic METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration will be recruited. Patients will be randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group. Participants in the ACT arm will attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. Control group will receive enhanced primary care that includes patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Data analysis will include 1-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multiple regression with bootstrapping. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability, improves functioning, and reduces medication misuse in chronic pain patients when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. In addition, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in value-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the effectiveness of addressing chronic pain in a generalizable integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. Findings have potential to transform the way chronic pain is currently managed in primary care settings, with results that could decrease disability and improve functioning among patients suffering from chronic pain.
The Sextans dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) galaxy was discovered recently by Irwin, et al. (1990, M. N. R. A. S., 244, 16p). We report results concerning a number of the global properties of the stellar population of this system. Based on deep CCD photometry obtained with the prime-focus CCD camera on the CTIO 4m telescope, we find that the galaxy is dominated by an old stellar population, similar to that observed in the Draco, Sculptor, and Ursa Minor dwarfs. Some blue stragglers are also present; if these are associated with an intermediate age component, they indicate that only a tiny fraction of the stellar population of Sextans is younger than about 10 Gyr. Based on the apparent magnitude of the predominately red horizontal branch, we conclude that the true distance modulus of Sextans is 19.7 ± 0.3, and the total luminosity of the galaxy is 5.2 × 105L⊙. A complete description of these results is given in Mateo, et al. (1991, A. J., 101, 892).
Long-standing interpretations of paleontologic, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic evidence from Permian-Triassic marine sequences in western Wyoming have suggested an interruption in deposition of several million years' duration between the two systems, even though physical evidence of unconformity is subtle and somewhat equivocal. We postulated that an unconformity of this duration should be more pronounced in paralic and non-marine facies in central and southeast Wyoming than in adjacent inner-shelf marine facies in westcentral Wyoming. Therefore, we correlated an erathem boundary-bearing sequence from westcentral Wyoming (where it is faunally controlled) to southeast Wyoming (where it is non-fossiliferous) and studied this sequence for evidence of hiatus. The correlations were made using surface sections, surface gamma-radiation logs, and subsurface log suites.
In southeast Wyoming, the lithostratigraphic equivalent to the systemic boundary in westcentral Wyoming is located within a redbed-evaporite sequence traditionally interpreted as having accumulated in paralic and/or terrestrial depositional environments. Physical evidence of disconformity at this surface in southeast Wyoming is no greater, and is in places less, than at several other horizons within the boundary-bearing sequence. Also, petrologic examination of the terrigenous clastic units below, through, and above the boundary-bearing sequence in central and southeast Wyoming suggests notable stability of the depositional environment. Southeastward stratigraphic thinning of various units within this boundary-bearing sequence is demonstrable; however, compelling evidence of regional truncation is not evident, and the stratigraphic thinning appears to be due to primary depositional processes rather than post-depositional erosion during hiatus.
We interpret slow, episodic, yet generally continuous deposition of evaporite and siliciclastic units in southeast Wyoming across the Permian-Triassic boundary. If true, then conventional biostratigraphic estimates of the duration of a hiatus separating Permian inner and middle-shelf carbonate facies from overlying Triassic siliciclastics in western Wyoming appear to be overly long, and may need re-evaluation.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been employed as one of several orthogonal means of screening materials to prevent counterfeit and adulterated products from entering the product stream. We document the use of principal component analysis (PCA) of XRF data on compositionally similar and dissimilar stainless steels for the purpose of testing the feasibility of employing XRF spectra to parse and bin these alloys as the same or significantly different alloy materials. The results indicate that XRF spectra can separate and assign alloys via PCA, but that important corrections for detector drift and scaling must be performed in order to achieve valid results.
During the LeadEx main field experiment, held in April 1992 in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a number of large ice stalactites were observed growing under young lead ice. Formation of the stalactites was associated with rafting of the thin, highly saline ice. The rafting caused the brine to drain rapidly from the ice at a temperature well below the freezing point of the surrounding water, which in turn caused ice to form in a hollow cylinder around the brine plume. Within a 15 h period after the rafting event, the stalactites, which were located approximately 10 m apart in a line along the upwind edge of a 150 m wide lead, had grown to a length of 2 m. A detailed structural analysis of the upper part of one of these stalactites revealed that the interior channel, down which the brine flowed, was bounded by a zone of frazil ice that developed into a shell of columnar ice. The growth of the columnar ice was directed radially outward and the c axes of these crystals were oriented perpendicular to their growth direction. Development of the stalactites illustrates the impact ice deformation can have on the process of brine rejection in freezing leads and potentially on the thermohaline structure of the upper ocean in the immediate vicinity of the lead.
Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children.
Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals
Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day
We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria. We applied adult temperature, white blood cell count, antibiotic, and culture criteria for IVAC and PVAP to these patients. We matched pediatric VAC patients with controls and evaluated associations with adverse outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models.
In total, 233 pediatric VACs (12,167 ventilation episodes) were identified. In the cardiac ICU (CICU), 62.5% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; in the pediatric ICU (PICU), 54.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; and in the neonatal ICU (NICU), 20.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria. Most patients had abnormal white blood cell counts and temperatures; we therefore recommend simplifying surveillance by focusing on “pediatric VAC with antimicrobial use” (pediatric AVAC). Pediatric AVAC with a positive respiratory diagnostic test (“pediatric PVAP”) occurred in 8.9% of VACs in the CICU, 13.3% of VACs in the PICU, and 4.3% of VACs in the NICU. Hospital mortality was increased, and hospital and ICU length of stay and duration of ventilation were prolonged among all pediatric VAE subsets compared with controls.
We propose pediatric AVAC for surveillance related to antimicrobial use, with pediatric PVAP as a subset of AVAC. Studies on generalizability and responsiveness of these metrics to quality improvement initiatives are needed, as are studies to determine whether lower pediatric VAE rates are associated with improvements in other outcomes.
The most extremely osmotolerant microbial isolates are fungi from high-sugar environments that tolerate the lowest water activity (0.61) for growth yet reported. Studies of osmotolerant bacteria have focused on halotolerance rather than sucretolerance (ability to grow in high sugar concentrations). A collection of salinotolerant (≥10% NaCl or ≥50% MgSO4) bacterial isolates from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma and Hot Lake in Washington were screened for sucretolerance in medium supplemented with ≥50% fructose, glucose or sucrose. Tolerances significantly differed between solutes, even though water activities for saline media (0.92 and 0.85 for 10 and 20% NaCl Salt Plains media, respectively) were comparable or lower than water activities for high-sugar media (0.93 and 0.90 for 50 and 70% sucrose artificial nectar media, respectively). These specific solute effects were differentially expressed among individual isolates. Extrapolating the results of earlier food science studies with yeasts at high sugar concentrations to bacteria in salty environments with low water activity should be done with caution. Furthermore, the discussion of habitable Special Regions on Mars and the icy worlds should reflect an understanding of specific solute effects.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to address specific aspects of the performance of X-ray powder diffraction instruments. This report describes SRM 1878b, the third generation of this powder diffraction SRM. SRM 1878b is intended for use in the preparation of calibration standards for the quantitative analyses of α-quartz by X-ray powder diffraction in accordance to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Analytical Method 7500, or equivalent. A unit of SRM 1878b consists of approximately 5 g of α-quartz powder bottled in an argon atmosphere. It is certified with respect to crystalline phase purity, or amorphous phase content, and lattice parameter. Neutron powder diffraction, both time of flight and constant wavelength, was used to certify the phase purity using SRM 676a as an internal standard. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features was used for certification measurements for lattice parameters.