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A new protocol has been devised for determining elastic properties of natural biocomposites in the form of bivalve shells under wet and dry conditions. Four-point bending on shell slices of Mytilus edulis, Ensis siliqua, and Pecten maximus give generally lower and more reliable values of Young’s modulus, E, than those in the literature from three-point bending, due to the more even distribution of strain. Finite element analysis of the prismatic microstructure of Pinna nobilis, obtained by X-ray tomography, shows that values of E ≈ 20 GPa can be understood in terms of the real microstructure containing a small proportion of organic matrix phase with E ≈ 1 GPa and a dominant proportion of calcite with E ≈ 90 GPa. Higher values of E obtained by nanoindentation give results which are biased toward the properties of the carbonate phase rather than of the biocomposite as a whole.
Investing in global health and development requires making difficult choices about what policies to pursue and what level of resources to devote to different initiatives. Methods of economic evaluation are well established and widely used to quantify and compare the impacts of alternative investments. However, if not well conducted and clearly reported, these evaluations can lead to erroneous conclusions. Differences in analytic methods and assumptions can obscure important differences in impacts. To increase the comparability of these evaluations, improve their quality, and expand their use, this special issue includes a series of papers developed to support reference case guidance for benefit-cost analysis. In this introductory article, we discuss the background and context for this work, summarize the process we are following, describe the overall framework, and introduce the articles that follow.
Chapter 13 covers a broad waterfront, encompassing digital transformation, the unevenness in access to new technologies, the complex power dynamics that underpin the new media and communication space, the shifting role of journalism in enabling (or not) public knowledge, and the challenges and opportunities for social progress in media access, with particular attention focused on the role of citizen journalism and alternative media.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and implementation of a standardized medically supervised concussion protocol established between a city-wide AAA hockey league and a multi-disciplinary concussion program. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of injury surveillance, clinical and healthcare utilization data from all athletes evaluated and managed through the Winnipeg AAA Hockey concussion protocol during the 2016-2017 season. We also conducted post-season email surveys of head coaches and parents responsible for athletes who competed in the same season. Results: During the 2016-2017 season, 28 athletes were evaluated through the medically supervised concussion protocol, with two athletes undergoing evaluation for repeat injuries (a total of 30 suspected injuries and consultations). In all, 96.7% of the athletes managed through the concussion protocol were captured by the league-designated Concussion Protocol Coordinator and 100% of eligible athletes underwent complete medical follow-up and clearance to return to full hockey activities. Although 90% of responding head coaches and 91% of parents were aware of the concussion protocol, survey results suggest that some athletes who sustained suspected concussions were not managed through the protocol. Head coaches and parents also indicated that athlete education and communication between medical and sport stakeholders were other elements of the concussion protocol that could be improved. Conclusion: Successful implementation of a medically supervised concussion protocol for youth hockey requires clear communication between sport stakeholders and timely access to multi-disciplinary experts in traumatic brain and spine injuries. Standardized concussion protocols for youth sports may benefit from periodic evaluations by sport stakeholders and incorporation of national guideline best practices and resources.
Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level.
We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient’s autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure.
A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual’s peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01).
Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.
I started out as a budding English as a second language (ESL) teacher in 1976 at UCLA where I went through the M.A. TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) and Applied Linguistics Ph.D. programs. Sadly, those two programs were ‘disestablished’ in 2014, which provides a stark lesson to any departments that think they are hot stuff that nothing lasts forever. Nonetheless, my training in those programs provided me with an excellent start down three professional paths: second language testing, curriculum development, and research methods.
Creating a culture of service in the legal profession should begin in law school. This chapter, authored by Judge Furgeson and several founding members of the University of North Texas Dallas College of Law (UNT) faculty, offers an example of how law schools can prepare law students for careers representing low- and moderate-income Americans.
The University of North Texas Dallas College of Law has set ambitious goals. We are a new law school. Classes have just started, and the work is only just beginning. Even so, our approach to every facet of the College of Law experience is designed to help expand access to legal services for all, including un- or underserved working Americans, such as the middle class and small businesses.
Our overall objective is to expand access to an excellent legal education while keeping costs – and student debt – low, and constructing a curriculum with an emphasis on practice skills and community service. Students will be sensitized to the needs of the underserved, while equipping them with the skills to deliver those services, unencumbered by the debt that makes delivering lower-cost legal services difficult.
ADMISSIONS: EXPANDING ACCESS
The College of Law admits and seeks to admit students who have the demonstrated potential to be excellent lawyers but may not otherwise have a realistic opportunity to access legal education, due to cost, geography, and the current dominance of the LSAT in both admissions decisions and awarding scholarships. We have low tuition and intend to keep it low.
For our inaugural class, the College of Law charged just $14,040 per year for full-time tuition. The inaugural 2014 class also received a partial tuition waiver, bringing tuition to just $12,540. We just welcomed our second entering class and modestly raised tuition for full-time students to $15,267. The College of Law also offers a part-time evening program, allowing students to keep their day jobs, offsetting some of the total expense of attending law school. And the geographic location of the College of Law in downtown Dallas opens opportunities for those who do not want or could not afford to move a long distance to attend law school.
Mesotrione, a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide, is labeled for PRE and POST crabgrass control. It has enhanced efficacy on smooth and large crabgrass when applied in conjunction with soil-applied nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study, using crabgrass as the weed species, were to (1) determine the influence of N rate and tissue N concentration on mesotrione activity, (2) determine the influence of N source on mesotrione activity, and (3) determine the influence of N application timing on mesotrione activity. Large crabgrass plants that received 12 kg N ha−1 or more before mesotrione application had more bleached and necrotic leaves compared with plants that received 0 kg N ha−1 7 d after treatment (DAT) in the greenhouse. Although N application rates as high as 98 kg N ha−1 were tested, 90% leaf bleaching and necrosis were observed with rates of 8.9 or 10.1 kg N ha−1 in Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. Nitrogen concentration in large crabgrass leaf and stem tissue on the day of the mesotrione application was closely related to the bleaching and necrosis symptoms observed 7 DAT. Although N rate influenced mesotrione activity, N source did not. Nitrogen application timing was also important, with N applications 3, 1, and 0 d before a mesotrione application having the highest percentage of bleached and necrotic leaves in greenhouse experiments. Both greenhouse and field trials support the finding that N applications in proximity to the mesotrione application enhance herbicide activity. Thus, practitioners can pair N and POST mesotrione applications together or in proximity to enhance crabgrass control.
Research studies evaluated effects of the auxin transport inhibitor, diflufenzopyr, on the biokinetics and efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl ester (AMCP-ME) applications to black nightshade and large crabgrass. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of 14C-AMCP-ME was quantified with and without diflufenzopyr (35 g ai ha−1). Diflufenzopyr had minimal effects on translocation of radioactivity in either species. Accumulation of radioactivity in aboveground plant sections of black nightshade was greater than or equal to that in large crabgrass by 72 h after treatment (HAT). In both species, metabolism of 14C-AMCP-ME was rapid, as 60 to 78% of the extracted radioactivity was the free acid metabolite 8 HAT. In the greenhouse, black nightshade and large crabgrass were treated with AMCP-ME (9, 18, and 35 g ai ha−1) alone and in combination with diflufenzopyr (35 g ha−1). Mixtures of AMCP-ME plus diflufenzopyr did not increase large crabgrass control compared with AMCP-ME alone at any time. Diflufenzopyr (35 g ha−1) increased black nightshade control with AMCP-ME (18 and 35 g ha−1) 7 d after treatment (DAT). However, this increase in control was not observed 14 or 28 DAT. All treatments containing AMCP-ME controlled large crabgrass 70 to 79% 28 DAT compared with > 93% for black nightshade at the same time point.
Prodiamine is a mitotic inhibiting herbicide regularly used to control annual bluegrass PRE. A population of annual bluegrass not controlled by prodiamine at 1,120 g a.i. ha−1 was identified on a golf course in Alcoa, TN, in 2012. A whole-plant hydroponics bioassay was used to screen this biotype for prodiamine resistance (PR) compared with a known susceptible population (SS). Multitiller (i.e., > 4 tillers) PR and SS annual bluegrass plants were established in hydroponic culture and exposed to 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 mM prodiamine. Exposure to prodiamine at 0.001 mM reduced root growth of the SS biotype to 26% of the nontreated check (i.e., 0 mM prodiamine) but had no effect on the PR biotype. When exposed to 10 mM prodiamine, root growth of the PR biotype was reduced to 24% of the nontreated check compared with 9% for the SS biotype. I50 values for the PR and SS biotypes were 0.04 and 2.8 × 10−6 mM prodiamine, respectively. The PR biotype measured lower in plant height and leaf width than the SS population. In field trials, prodiamine at 560, 840, 1,120, and 1,400 g ha−1 only controlled the PR biotype 0 to 22%. PRE applications of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor indaziflam at 35, 52.5, and 70 g a.i. ha−1 controlled this PR biotype 70 to 97%. This marks the second instance of annual bluegrass developing resistance to prodiamine in Tennessee during the past 5 yr. Future research should evaluate indaziflam efficacy for control of other prodiamine-resistant biotypes of annual bluegrass as well as annual bluegrass biotypes resistant to herbicidal inhibitors of 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase, acetolactate synthase, and photosystem II.
PRE herbicides have been reported to injure both the foliage and roots of hybrid bermudagrass turf established in sand culture. Research was conducted to evaluate the influence of reed-sedge peat moss (RSPM) on hybrid bermudagrass injury following PRE herbicide applications to plants established in sand culture. Washed sod plugs were established in mini-rhizotrons constructed with sand root-zones varying in organic carbon content (0.000, 0.003, 0.007, and 0.012 kg kg−1). Herbicide treatments included indaziflam (35 and 52.5 g ai ha−1) and prodiamine (840 g ai ha−1). Significant foliar injury was only observed with indaziflam at 52.5 g ha−1. When applied to plants in sand with no detectable (0.000 kg kg−1) organic carbon, foliar injury measured 61% by 6 wk after treatment. Comparatively, injury with indaziflam at 52.5 g ha−1 was reduced by 40% with applications to plants established in sand with 0.007 kg kg−1 organic carbon. Root length, root length density, and root surface area were greatest in sand-based root zones with ≥ 0.007 kg kg−1 organic carbon regardless of herbicide treatment; however, only indaziflam (52.5 g ha−1) and prodiamine-treated plants exhibited diminished root parameters relative to the nontreated check. Data in the current study illustrate that RSPM can affect above- and belowground injury following PRE herbicide applications to hybrid bermudagrass in sand root-zones.