Medusahead is an invasive annual grass that, once established, severely affects range-land productivity and stability. Medusahead builds large seedbanks in the litter and on the soil surface. Effective weed control of medusahead involves either inhibiting germination from the seedbank, eliminating the seedbank, or enhancing germination so that plants are available for control. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of nitrogen enrichment, immobilization, and nitrification inhibition treatments in the field on the size and germination status of medusahead seedbanks. The germination status of medusahead seeds in seedbanks was determined by periodically collecting field samples of surface soil and litter and bioassaying them in greenhouse emergence tests. Control seedbanks had increased seedling emergence with KNO3 or GA3 enrichment of the bioassay substrate. The combination of these two materials increased emergence. Nitrogen enrichment increased seedling establishment in the field. Carbon enrichment in the field decreased seedling establishment and increased medusahead seeds in seedbanks. Nitrapyrin treatment decreased medusahead in the field similar to carbon enrichment. In comparison to the control or other treatments, GA3 enrichment was not as effective in increasing emergence from nitrapyrin-treated bioassay samples. The combination of carbon and nitrapyrin treatments was very effective in eliminating medusahead emergence in the field, but in wetter years, it never completely eliminated medusahead seedling recruitment and subsequent reproduction. These treatments have promise for influencing succession in medusahead infestations if an adapted perennial species, capable of competing under low nitrogen levels, becomes available.