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In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
Weeds are the major biotic constraint to rice production. Field observations have suggested that certain fertilizer regimes could enhance infestations of particular weed species emerging with rice. The study objective was to determine the effect of surface-applied calcium phosphate on weed growth in flooded California rice systems. In field and pot studies, triple superphosphate (TSP) applied to the soil surface increased weed emergence. Surface-applied TSP increased the number of sedge and broadleaf weeds, including smallflower umbrella sedge, blue-flowered ducksalad, redstem, ricefield bulrush, waterhyssop, and California arrowhead. A laboratory study measured germination of smallflower umbrella sedge and ricefield bulrush in response to the application of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca), which comprise 20 and 15% of TSP, respectively. Calcium stimulated smallflower umbrella sedge germination and had no effect on ricefield bulrush germination. Phosphorus did not stimulate either smallflower umbrella sedge or ricefield bulrush germination. Results indicate that surface applications of calcium phosphate increase the growth of certain weed species and that Ca may stimulate germination of smallflower umbrella sedge. By incorporating preplant applications of calcium phosphate into the soil profile, growers can reduce weed pressure from certain species. Alternatively, surface applications of calcium phosphate may be useful to stimulate weed emergence in stale-seedbed management.
The efficiency of the thermoelectric devices is limited by the properties of n- and p-type semiconductors. Effective thermoelectric materials have a low thermal conductivity and a high electrical conductivity. The performance of the thermoelectric materials and devices is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and K is the thermal conductivity. In this study we prepared the thermoelectric generator device of SiO2/SiO2+Au multi-layer super-lattice films using the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). In order to determine the stoichiometry of the elements of SiO2 and Au in the grown multilayer films and the thickness of the grown multi-layer films Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and RUMP simulation software package was used. The 5 MeV Si ion bombardments was performed to make quantum clusters in the multi-layer super-lattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric generator devices before and after Si ion bombardments we measured the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient, the cross-plane electrical conductivity, and the cross-plane thermal conductivity for different fluences.
Effective thermoelectric materials have a low thermal conductivity and a high electrical conductivity. The performance of the thermoelectric materials and devices is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2sσ/ KTC, σ is the electrical conductivity T/KTC, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, T is the absolute temperature and KTC is the thermal conductivity. In this study we have prepared the thermoelectric generator device of Si/Si+Ge multi-layer superlattice films using the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). To determine the stoichiometry of the elements of Si and Ge in the grown multilayer films and the thickness of the grown multi-layer films Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and RUMP simulation software package were used. The 5 MeV Si ion bombardments were performed to make quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity.
Keywords: Ion bombardment, thermoelectric properties, multi-nanolayers, Figure of merit.
Resistance to herbicides and the lack of viable control options have led to an interest in increasing the role of crop competition as a weed management tool in water-seeded rice production. Weed-suppressive rice cultivars have been suggested as a tool that could improve weed control and reduce the reliance of growers on herbicides. Field studies were conducted at Biggs, CA, in 1999 and 2000 with six to eight semidwarf rice cultivars to identify water-seeded rice traits related to the suppression of watergrass growth. Cultivars S-201 and M-302 were the most suppressive in both years. The dry weight (DW) of watergrass grown with the most suppressive cultivar was only 16% in 1999 and 57% in 2000 of the DW of watergrass grown with the least suppressive cultivar. Rice leaf area and root DW in weed-free plots were linearly related to watergrass DW in both years. Weed-suppressive traits were not inversely correlated with rice yields in monoculture; competitive cultivars also had high yields. This study suggests that an indirect selection program, based on traits that can be identified early in the season under weed-free conditions, has great potential for developing more competitive cultivars for water-seeded rice.
California arrowhead is a broadleaf weed widespread in water-seeded rice. Bensulfuron is the only herbicide currently available for use throughout the California rice growing region that provides complete control of California arrowhead; however, resistance to bensulfuron has been detected in California arrowhead and in several other weed species. Growers have herbicide alternatives for weed species other than California arrowhead but continue to use bensulfuron year after year for control because they believe California arrowhead reduces rice yields. However, damage thresholds have not been determined for this weed, and the crop may be able to tolerate relatively high California arrowhead densities. In this work, the damage thresholds for California arrowhead were determined in field and greenhouse experiments. Water-seeded rice was grown in mixture with California arrowhead in a 1992 greenhouse experiment and in field experiments in 1992 and 1998. Rice tiller density and grain yields were not affected by California arrowhead densities up to 200 plants m−2 in any year. Rice was taller than California arrowhead throughout the growing season in all experiments, and the weed senesced well before rice maturity. The ability of the crop to overtop the weed and grow weed-free during the latter part of the season may explain why California arrowhead is such a weak competitor with water-seeded rice. The results suggest that growers may be able to tolerate California arrowhead densities up to 200 plants m−2 without detectable yield losses. Implications for weed management are discussed.
In certain cases, the incidence energy of constituent atoms activates an atomistic insertion mechanism, which decreases the surface roughness of metal thin films. In an effort to probe this effect, homoepitaxial copper films were grown using a mass/energy selected direct ion deposition technique that allows precise control of the incidence energy. Surface roughness is measured using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) within the same UHV surface analysis system. The activation of the insertion mechanism near 20 eV triggers smoother crystal growth. The beneficial effects begin to be obscured by adatom/vacancy creation near 30 eV. A sophisticated Kinetic Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (KMC-MD) model supports this interpretation.
As the role of paramedics evolves, evaluation of their ability to accomplish an expanded scope of practice is necessary. The objective of this study was to determine whether specially trained paramedics can monitor and treat patients appropriately during interfacility transports that traditionally have required the use of supplemental, hospital-based personnel.
A paramedic-staffed mobile intensive care unit was developed as a cooperative program between Huron Valley Ambulance and the Washtenaw/Livingston County Medical Control Authority. This prospective observational study involved 111 patients requiring interfacility transport, conveyed by a paramedic-staffed mobile intensive care unit. A change in the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score components of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate at the beginning and end of the transport was used to evaluate the ability of the paramedics to accomplish the transfer appropriately.
APACHE II scares increased in 20 patients, decreased in 16, and were unchanged in 75. The mean value for the change in APACHE score was 0.11 (95% confidence interval: −0.11−0.33).
Specially trained paramedics can monitor and treat patients appropriately during interfacility transfers that traditionally would have required supplementation with additional hospital staff.
The linear polarization of the Crab pulsar as a function of pulse phase was observed by the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope in March, 1993. Observations were obtained in a bandpass centered on 2770 A using a 0.25 ms sample time, corresponding to a time resolution of 0.0075 in pulse phase. The UV polarization of the pulsar [Fig. 1] is strikingly similar to that observed in the visible (cf. Smith et al. 1988). The same values of polarization and the same swing of position angle occur through the main and secondary pulses. The polarization pulse profile must be essentially wavelength independent at frequencies above the infrared.
In five field experiments from 1986 to 1988, herbicides were evaluated alone and in combinations for weed control in water-seeded rice. Combinations of bensulfuron with either molinate or thiobencarb applied into the paddy water at the 2-leaf stage of rice, controlled all broadleaf and sedge weeds, and 92% or more early watergrass. These combinations were equivalent to a commercial standard of molinate at the 2-leaf stage followed by a separate application of bentazon to the drained paddy at midtillering.
A general discrete multi-dimensional and multi-state random walk model is proposed to describe the phenomena of diffusion in media with multiple diffusivities. The model is a generalization of a two-state one-dimensional discrete random walk model (Hill ) which gives rise to the partial differential equations of double diffusion. The same partial differential equations are shown to emerge as a special case of the continuous version of the present general model. For two states a particular generalization of the model given in  is presented which is not restricted to nearest neighbour transitions. Under appropriate circumstances this two-state model still yields the partial differential equations of double diffusion in the continuum limit, but an example of circumstances leading to a radically different continuum limit is presented.
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