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This Research Communication describes an investigation of the nutritional depletion of total mixed rations (TMR) by pest birds. We hypothesized that species-specific bird depredation of TMR can alter the nutritional composition of the ration and that these changes can negatively impact the performance of dairy cows. Blackbirds selected the high energy fraction of the TMR (i.e., flaked corn) and reduced starch, crude fat and total digestible nutrients during controlled feeding experiments. For Holsteins producing 37·1 kg of milk/d, dairy production modeling illustrated that total required net energy intake (NEI) was 35·8 Mcal/d. For the reference TMR unexposed to blackbirds and the blackbird-consumed TMR, NEI supplied was 41·2 and 37·8 Mcal/d, and the resulting energy balance was 5·4 and 2·0 Mcal/d, respectively. Thus, Holsteins fed the reference and blackbird-consumed TMR were estimated to gain one body condition score in 96 and 254 d, and experience daily weight change due to reserves of 1·1 and 0·4 kg/d, respectively. We discuss these results in context of an integrated pest management program for mitigating the depredation caused by pest birds at commercial dairies.
Prestige, authority and power: what is the significance of these three terms for the study of late-medieval manuscripts and texts? This collection of essays, by leading scholars from Britain and North America, answers this question in various ways: by discussing manuscripts as prestigious de luxe objects; by showing how the layout of texts was used to confer different kinds of authority; and by locating manuscripts and texts more dynamically in what Foucault calls 'power's net-like organisation'. All of the essays in the volume embed the manuscripts they discuss in particular sets of personal relationships, conducted in specific social environments - in the schoolroom or the monastery, at court, in the gentry household and the city, or mediating between these. The essays address, among others, issues of gender, patronage, status, self-authorization, and gentry and urban sociability, in studies ranging from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries. Professor FELICITY RIDDY teaches in the Centre for Medieval Studies and the Department of English at the University of York. Contributors: SUZANNE REYNOLDS, KANTIK GHOSH, KATE HARRIS, KATHLEEN L. SCOTT, JOHN THOMPSON, CAROL M. MEALE, ANNE M. DUTTON, JAMES P. CARLEY, DAVID R. CARLSON
As noted by Satz, the prevalence of lateralized
language in the general population is underestimated substantially
by the proportion of people who show the typical asymmetry
on a laterality task. In a series of two dichotic listening
experiments with a total of 171 right-handers and 170 left-handers,
we tested the hypothesis that increased reliability of
measurement will lead to increased classification accuracy.
Experiment 1 showed that neither the frequency nor magnitude
of the right-ear advantage (REA) for fused rhyming words
increased as the number of trials increased from 120 to
480. Ear-difference scores were highly reliable (r
= .85), even when based on 120 trials. Experiment 2, which
involved lists of dichotic word pairs, yielded similar
results. Even though retest reliability of the ear-difference
score for 132 word pairs was only .45, neither the incidence
nor strength of the REA increased significantly when the
number of pairs was increased to 528. The results indicate
that the poor classification accuracy of dichotic listening
tasks cannot be attributed to unreliability. (JINS,
2000, 6, 539–547.)
Capital budgeting can be described as the problem of allocating scarce capital among a number of investment opportunities in such a manner that the outcome most preferred by a decision maker will result. When a single, mathematically explicit criterion is assumed, mathematical programming techniques can be applied. However, a single criterion, such as maximizing the return on investment or minimizing the risk of losing a sizable fraction of the original investment, is not appropriate for a significant number of real-world decision makers for whom two or more criteria, e.g., a judicious combination of return on investment and risk, are important. It has been argued  that it is usually not possible to obtain an explicit utility function for the decision maker and, consequently, that it is usually not possible to apply conventional (optimizing) mathematical programming techniques to find the most preferred outcome.
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