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Decreases in Fe status have been reported in military women during initial training periods of 8–10 weeks. The present study aimed to characterise Fe status and associations with physical performance in female New Zealand Army recruits during a 16-week basic combat training (BCT) course. Fe status indicators – Hb, serum ferritin (sFer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin saturation (TS) and erythrocyte distribution width (RDW) – were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and end of BCT in seventy-six volunteers without Fe-deficiency non-anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb ≥120 g/l) or Fe-deficiency anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb <120 g/l) at baseline or a C-reactive protein >10 mg/l at baseline or end. A timed 2·4 km run followed by maximum press-ups were performed at baseline and midpoint (week 8) to assess physical performance. Changes in Fe status were investigated using paired t tests and associations between Fe status and physical performance evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. sFer (56·6 (sd 33·7) v. 38·4 (sd 23·8) µg/l) and TS (38·8 (sd 13·9) v. 34·4 (sd 11·5) %) decreased (P<0·001 and P=0·014, respectively), while sTfR (1·21 (sd 0·27) v. 1·39 (sd 0·35) mg/l) and RDW (12·8 (sd 0·6) v. 13·2 (sd 0·7) %) increased (P<0·001) from baseline to end. Hb (140·6 (sd 7·5) v. 142·9 (sd 7·9) g/l) increased (P=0·009) during BCT. At end, sTfR was positively (r 0·29, P=0·012) and TS inversely associated (r –0·32, P=0·005) with midpoint run time. There were no significant correlations between Fe status and press-ups. Storage and functional Fe parameters indicated a decline in Fe status in female recruits during BCT. Correlations between tissue-Fe indicators and run times suggest impaired aerobic fitness. Optimal Fe status appears paramount for enabling success in female recruits during military training.
Mental health support in Sierra Leone is sparse, and qualitative research into the feasibility of implementing psychological interventions is equally underdeveloped. Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust were commissioned to develop a psychological intervention that UK clinicians could train national staff with minimal psychological experience to deliver to their peers. Following the completion of the stepped care, group-based cognitive–behavioural therapy intervention, qualitative interviews were conducted with the national team to identify key barriers and enablers to implementation of and engagement with this intervention. This article describes the key themes that came out of those interviews, and discusses the implications of these findings for future clinical teams.
Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, six digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon) and 124 faecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants and algae consumption was analysed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn, can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.
There are an estimated 400 million hectares of non-cropland in the United States primarily designated as rangeland and pastureland, and there are more than 300 invasive weeds found on these sites, causing an estimated annual loss of $5 billion. Among the most invasive and problematic weeds are Dalmatian toadflax, diffuse knapweed, downy brome, and musk thistle. Currently, herbicides are the most common management strategy for broadleaf weeds and invasive winter annual grasses. Indaziflam, a new herbicide for invasive plant management in non-crop areas, is a cellulose-biosynthesis inhibitor capable of providing residual invasive winter annual grass control up to 3 yr after treatment (YAT). A field experiment was conducted to determine whether residual Dalmatian toadflax and downy brome control by aminocyclopyrachlor, imazapic, and picloram could be extended by tank mixing these herbicides with indaziflam. Indaziflam tank mixed with aminocyclopyrachlor, imazapic, and picloram provided increased Dalmatian toadflax (84% to 91%) and downy brome (89% to 94%) control 4 YAT, compared with treatments excluding indaziflam. Treatments without indaziflam controlled 50% to 68% of Dalmatian toadflax and <25% downy brome 4 YAT. Based on these results, a greenhouse dose–response experiment was conducted with aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, and indaziflam to compare preemergence control of nine common non-crop weeds. Averaged across species, aminocyclopyrachlor and aminopyralid GR50 values (herbicide concentration resulting in 50% reduction in plant biomass) were 29 and 52 times higher compared with indaziflam, respectively. These data suggest that indaziflam could be used for residual control of non-crop weeds as a tank-mix partner with other foliar-applied broadleaf herbicides.
Mesotrione, a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide, is labeled for PRE and POST crabgrass control. It has enhanced efficacy on smooth and large crabgrass when applied in conjunction with soil-applied nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study, using crabgrass as the weed species, were to (1) determine the influence of N rate and tissue N concentration on mesotrione activity, (2) determine the influence of N source on mesotrione activity, and (3) determine the influence of N application timing on mesotrione activity. Large crabgrass plants that received 12 kg N ha−1 or more before mesotrione application had more bleached and necrotic leaves compared with plants that received 0 kg N ha−1 7 d after treatment (DAT) in the greenhouse. Although N application rates as high as 98 kg N ha−1 were tested, 90% leaf bleaching and necrosis were observed with rates of 8.9 or 10.1 kg N ha−1 in Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. Nitrogen concentration in large crabgrass leaf and stem tissue on the day of the mesotrione application was closely related to the bleaching and necrosis symptoms observed 7 DAT. Although N rate influenced mesotrione activity, N source did not. Nitrogen application timing was also important, with N applications 3, 1, and 0 d before a mesotrione application having the highest percentage of bleached and necrotic leaves in greenhouse experiments. Both greenhouse and field trials support the finding that N applications in proximity to the mesotrione application enhance herbicide activity. Thus, practitioners can pair N and POST mesotrione applications together or in proximity to enhance crabgrass control.
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies have
been reported in people with acute psychosis. We hypothesised that their
presence may be implicated in the aetiology of treatment-refractory
psychosis. We sought to ascertain the point prevalence of NMDA-R antibody
positivity in patients referred to services for treatment-refractory
psychosis. We found that 3 (7.0%) of 43 individuals had low positive NMDA-R
antibody titres. This suggests that NMDA-R autoantibodies are unlikely to
account for a large proportion of treatment-refractory psychosis.
Stratigraphic records from lake sediment cores and slope deposits on Rapa Nui document prehistoric human impacts and natural environmental changes. A hiatus in sedimentation in Rano Raraku suggests that this lake basin dried out sometime after 4090–4410 cal yr BP and refilled only decades to centuries before AD 1180–1290. Widespread ecosystem changes caused by forest clearance by Polynesian farmers began shortly after the end of this drought. Terrestrial sections show a chronology of burning and soil erosion similar to the lake cores. Although changing sediment types and shifts in the pollen rain suggest that droughts occurred earlier in the Holocene, as yet there is no evidence for droughts occurring after AD 1180–1290. The timing of the agricultural colonization of Rapa Nui now seems well established at ca. AD 1200 and it was accompanied by rapid deforestation that was probably exacerbated by the island's small size, its droughty climate, and the rarity of primeval fires. Detailed records of a large interval of Rapa Nui's ecological history remain elusive due to the drought hiatus in the Rano Raraku sediment record. We find no evidence for a "rat outbreak impact" on Rapa Nui's vegetation preceding anthropogenic forest clearance.
Since the publication of the use of a dicing saw for TEM sample preparation, several analytical labs have adopted this method as standard practice for site-specific cross section and plan view samples. In this article, we would like to provide additional practical details of these procedures, and describe several extensions, including useful notes on batch processing, preparing samples with an area of interest very close to the sample edge, and a Focused Ion Beam (FIB)-compatible sample holder. We present an unusual amount of detail in these processes to show some of the evolution of the method since its introduction and to allow others to easily reproduce these results.
Experiments were conducted in subirrigated and upland Colorado pastures to compare herbicides applied alone in fall to the same herbicides preceded by one, two, or three mowings. Picloram controlled Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) well at both sites, and in general, mowing did not improve its performance. Picloram at 560 g ai/ha and picloram plus 2,4-D at 280 plus 1,120 g ai/ha were the lowest rates that eliminated Canada thistle. Mowing did not improve chlorsulfuron performance at either site, but chlorsulfuron eliminated Canada thistle at the subirrigated site. Dicamba controlled 97% of Canada thistle at the subirrigated site, and mowing did not improve its performance; two or three mowings before spraying dicamba at the upland site improved performance, but 37% remained uncontrolled. Control from the reduced rate and the two lowest recommended rates of clopyralid plus 2,4-D was improved by two or three prior mowings at the subirrigated site, but only the highest rate benefited from two or three mowings at the upland site. Mowing alone three times per year for 2 yr controlled 85% of Canada thistle at the subirrigated site, but failed to control it at the upland site. Variability in results between experiments likely was due to a high water table at the subirrigated site, which may have restricted Canada thistle root growth and possibly made it easier to control. Inconsistent results prohibit concluding that mowing before spraying will consistently improve Canada thistle control, and such a treatment combination should not be commonly recommended.