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Since the 1979 revolution, Iran has promoted a Shi'a Islamic identity aimed at transcending ethnic and national boundaries. During the same period, Iran's Armenian community, once a prominent Christian minority in Tehran, has declined by more than eighty percent. Although the Armenian community is recognised by the constitution and granted specific privileges under Iranian law, they do not share equal rights with their Shi'i Muslim compatriots. Drawing upon interviews conducted with members of the Armenian community and using sources in both Persian and Armenian languages, this book questions whether the Islamic Republic has failed or succeeded in fostering a cohesive identity which enables non-Muslims to feel a sense of belonging in this Islamic Republic. As state identities are also often key in exacerbating ethnic conflict, this book probes into the potential cleavage points for future social conflict in Iran.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
Spring snow melt over the Beaufort and East Siberian seas is examined using visible-band DMSP imagery, SMMR brightness temperatures, and surface air temperatures for the years 1979, 1980 and 1984–86. Regional melt onset, as identified from the SMMR data, typically begins in early June, but can vary by up to two weeks between years. The subsequent pace of melt, estimated from the difference in days between the SMMR signal and visual identification of melt features in the DMSP data, exhibits a similar range. Interannual differences in snow melt are examined with respect to variations in cloud cover and geostrophic meridional winds. While over the Beaufort Sea, early melt onset and rapid melt progression may be favored by a combination of limited cloud cover and, as inferred from the wind data, strong northward air advection, no firm conclusions can be drawn from the available data. Presumably, potential relationships between melt and atmospheric forcings tend to be masked by additional factors, such as variations in initial snow depth and uncertainties in the data sets.
Passive microwave data (SMMR) and data from drifting buoys are used to examine atmosphere-ice interactions during autumn 1978 through autumn 1982 in the Canada Basin. SMMR brightness temperatures, ratios, and calculated ice concentrations are compared with surface pressure, temperature, buoy motion, and winds at a coincident location to identify possible linkages operating on daily to weekly time-scales. Inter-annual differences in temperature, pressure, and ice conditions inferred from SMMR data are discussed. Periods of reduced ice concentration as estimated by SMMR are found to occur during late summer and early autumn in 1980, 1981, and 1982. The decreases in ice concentration are concurrent with low-pressure systems and increased divergence in the buoy field in 1980 and 1981. These apparent decreases in ice compactness are discussed in relation to previously reported areas of reduced concentration interpreted from ESMR data. Evidence to support a postulated relationship between atmospheric low pressure and divergence of ice under free-drift conditions is demonstrated for the summer of 1980.