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Gender diversity is now recognised as simply part of human diversity, rather than being pathological. This shift calls for a need for mental health professionals to adapt their practice when working with trans and non-binary people. Written by two clinicians with significant experience in this field, this book provides practical, everyday advice on what to do when seeing gender-diverse people in both inpatient and outpatient settings. It avoids focusing on academic theory or being overly political and, instead, offers straightforward, useful guidance on common issues clinicians may face, such as which ward to accommodate someone on or which name to use when. Topics include common drug interactions, differential diagnoses, complex case formulation, autistic spectrum conditions, the spectrum of sexualities, surgeries, legal and religious matters, forensic assessment, psychotherapy and mental health diagnoses. Fully relevant to contemporary practice, this is a much-needed guide for busy clinicians seeking immediate, practical and authoritative answers.
Herbicide resistance has for decades been an increasing problem of agronomic crops such as corn and soybean. Several weed species have evolved herbicide resistance in turfgrass systems such as golf courses, sports fields, and sod production—particularly biotypes of annual bluegrass and goosegrass. Consequences of herbicide resistance in agronomic cropping systems indicate what could happen in turfgrass if herbicide resistance becomes broader in terms of species, distribution, and mechanisms of action. The turfgrass industry must take action to develop effective resistance management programs while this problem is still relatively small in scope. We propose that lessons learned from a series of national listening sessions conducted by the Herbicide Resistance Education Committee of the Weed Science Society of America to better understand the human dimensions affecting herbicide resistance in crop production provide tremendous insight into what themes to address when developing effective resistance management programs for the turfgrass industry.
Mountain passes have played a key role in past mobility, facilitating transhumance, intra-regional travel and long-distance exchange. Current global warming has revealed an example of such a pass at Lendbreen, Norway. Artefacts exposed by the melting ice indicate usage from c. AD 300–1500, with a peak in activity c. AD 1000 during the Viking Age—a time of increased mobility, political centralisation and growing trade and urbanisation in Northern Europe. Lendbreen provides new information concerning the socio-economic factors that influenced high-elevation travel, and increases our understanding of the role of mountain passes in inter- and intra-regional communication and exchange.
Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0·5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by ≥5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (Δmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0–180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0·06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower Δmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0–60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0–180 min) P<0·05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1·2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.
The growth of medieval cities in Northern Europe placed new demands on food supply, and led to the import of fish from increasingly distant fishing grounds. Quantitative analysis of cod remains from London provides revealing insight into the changing patterns of supply that can be related to known historical events and circumstances. In particular it identifies a marked increase in imported cod from the thirteenth century AD. That trend continued into the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, after a short downturn, perhaps attributable to the impact of the Black Death, in the mid fourteenth century. The detailed pattern of fluctuating abundance illustrates the potential of archaeological information that is now available from the high-quality urban excavations conducted in London and similar centres during recent decades.
Transsexualism is not usually indicative of psychopathology. In carefully
selected individuals, with multidisciplinary support, a change of social
gender role and cross-sex hormone treatment greatly improves the
psychological and social state. Sustained improvement merits gender
reassignment surgery. The key is early referral with subsequent primary care
cooperation in the treatment plan.
Translational neuroscience is at the heart of clinical advancement in the fields of psychiatry, neurology and neurodevelopmental disorders. Written and edited by leading scientists and clinicians, this is a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of this emerging strategy for developing more effective treatments for brain disorders. Introductory chapters bring together perspectives from both academia and industry, while subsequent sections focus on disease groups, including bipolar disorder and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, autism, Alzheimer's disease, pain, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Each section includes topical introductory and summary chapters, providing an overview and synthesis of the field. Translational Neuroscience: Applications in Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders is an important text for clinicians, scientists and students in academic settings, government agencies and industry, as well as those working in the fields of public health and the behavioural sciences.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the USA. Although PD is traditionally recognized by its motor symptoms, refinement of our clinical and pathological tools has led to increasing recognition that PD also causes significant nonmotor deficits. Three main treatment strategies are currently used to provide motor symptom relief in patients with early PD. These strategies include using dopamine agonists as monotherapy, long lasting dopamine therapy, and nondopaminergic agents. The mortality rate of PD is about three times higher than the mortality rate in the normal age-matched population before the introduction of l-dopa treatment. To accelerate the development of novel PD therapies, it is essential to identify reliable biomarkers for PD. Lastly, equipped with new understanding of the molecular basis of PD, efforts are now targeted toward overcoming the major obstacles to developing an effective neuroprotective therapy for PD, including accurate animal models of PD.