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While recent research points to the potential benefits of clinical intervention before the first episode of psychosis, the logistical feasibility of this is unclear.
To assess the feasibility of providing a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in an inner city area where engagement with mental health services is generally poor.
Following a period of liaison with local agencies to promote the service, referrals were assessed and managed in a primary care setting. Activity of the service was audited over 30 months.
People with prodromal symptoms were referred by a range of community agencies and seen at their local primary care physician practice. Over 30 months, 180 clients were referred; 58 (32.2%) met criteria for an at risk mental state, most of whom (67.2%) had attenuated psychotic symptoms. Almost 30% were excluded due to current or previous psychotic illness, of which two-thirds were in the first episode of psychosis. The socio-demographic composition of the 'at risk' group reflected that of the local population, with an over-representation of clients from an ethnic minority. Over 90% of suitable clients remained engaged with the service after 1 year.
It is feasible to provide a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in a deprived inner city area with a large ethnic minority population.
The pattern of brain morphological changes at the early stages of schizophrenia may depend on the age at onset of illness; in children and adolescents with schizophrenia, grey matter deficits are seen in the parietal lobe whereas in individuals with adult onset these are more widespread.
To examine whether white matter is similarly affected.
Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare fractional anisotropy measures in individuals with adolescent-onset (n = 17) and adult-onset schizophrenia (n = 17) with those in age- and gender-matched controls.
Compared with their respective controls, individuals with adolescent-onset schizophrenia showed fractional anisotropy decrease in parietal regions; individuals with adult onset showed additional fractional anisotropy reductions in frontal, temporal and cerebellar regions. A differential effect of age at onset (adolescent v. adult) was noted bilaterally in medial prefrontal white matter.
White matter abnormalities in frontal regions in schizophrenia may depend on developmental stage at the time of illness onset.
People with prodromal symptoms have a very high risk of developing psychosis.
To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neurocognitive basis of this vulnerability.
Cross-sectional comparison of regional activation in individuals with an ‘at-risk mental state’ (at-risk group: n=17), patients with first-episode schizophreniform psychosis (psychosis group: n=10) and healthy volunteers (controls: n=15) during an overt verbal fluency task and an N-back working memory task.
A similar pattern of between-group differences in activation was evident across both tasks. Activation in the at-risk group was intermediate relative to that in controls and the psychosis group in the inferior frontal and anterior cingulate cortex during the verbal fluency task and in the inferior frontal, dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex during the N-back task.
The at-risk mental state is associated with abnormalities of regional brain function that are qualitatively similar to, but less severe than, those in patients who have recently presented with psychosis.
Aunque la investigatión recieñte senala los beneficios potenciales de la interventión clínica antes del primer episodio de psicosis, la viabilidad logística de esto no esta clara.
Evaluar la viabilidad de proporcionar un servicio clínico para personas con síntomas prodrómicos en un área urbana deprimida donde el compromiso con los servicios de salud mental es malo por lo general.
Después de un periodo de enlace con agencias locales para promover el servicio, se evaluó y trató las derivaciones en un entomo de atención primaria. La actividad del servicio se auditó durante 30 meses.
Diversas agencias comunitarias derivaron a las personas con síntomas prodrómicos. Se vio a estas personas en la consulta de su médico de atención primaria local. Durante 30 meses, derivaron a 180 clientes; 50 (32,%) cumplían los criterios para estado mental de riesgo, teniendo la mayoría de ellos (67,2%) síntomas psicóticos atenuados. Se excluyó casi al 30% debido a enfermedad psicótica actual o anterior; dos tercios de ellos estaban en el primer episodio de psicosis. La compositión sociodemográfica del grupo “en situation de riesgo” reflejaba la de la población local, con una sobre-representación de clientes de una minoría étnica. Más del 90% de los clients apropiados mantenía el compromiso con el servicio después de 1 año.
Es posible proporcionar un servicio clínico para personas con síntomas pródromicos en un área urbana deprimida deficitaria con una gran población de minoría ertnica.
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