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This paper investigates the effects on knowledge creation of network size and partner diversity formed through alliance relationships. These effects are tested empirically in the biotech industry setting, which is representative of industries that emphasize external collaboration. Using patent count as a proxy of knowledge creation, Poisson regression was employed to test our predictions empirically. The statistical results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between network size and knowledge creation. In addition, a negative relationship was observed between partner diversity and knowledge creation. This research suggests that small biotech firms should strive to achieve a balanced network size. Knowledge creation is better promoted in these firms through alliances with firms of similar organizational type. The value of this research lies in the fact that it provides new insight into properties of alliance networks by highlighting potentially negative consequences of having an oversized alliance network and partner diversity.
Tungsten oxide nanorods (TONs) with the diameters of 40 nm and the length of 130 nm have been synthesized on substrates using two step electrochemical anodizing processes. The TONs were vertically well-ordered on the substrates with the average interdistance of 100 nm. The TONs had amorphous structure and was mainly composed of W, Al, and O elements, of which the contents varied gradually along the nanorod length from the top surface to the bottom. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and galvanostatic charge-discharge analyses showed that TONs had the typical electrochemical pseudocapacitive features of rectangular CV hysteresis and symmetric charge-discharge behaviors, respectively. When the TONs were heat-treated at 600℃ in vacuum, they showed the maximum specific capacitance of 660 ㎌/cm2, which was higher, by an order of magnitude, than that (68 ㎌/cm2) of the TONs annealed at 300 ℃ in ambient atmosphere.
A new method of fabricating nanocomposite films made up of multiwall carbon nanotube and nanocrystalline copper was developed by using an electrochemical deposition. The electroplated CNT/Cu nanocomposites have the microstructure that CNTs are well dispersed in both the planar and depth directions without any voids in the matrix. The conditions were successfully achieved by using some amphiphilic polymers, organic additives and a pulse electrodeposition method. The microstructure and CNT composition of nanocomposite films were strongly affected by the concentration of CNT in the electrolyte. The mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/Cu nanocomposite films were investigated with the variation of CNT content in the nanocomposite films.
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