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There is limited evidence on the interaction by alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH1B) (rs1229984) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) (rs671) regarding the associations of alcohol and a methyl diet (low folate and high alcohol intake) with cancer risk, partly because of rare polymorphisms in Western populations.
In a case–control study, we estimated the ORs and 95 % CIs to evaluate the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes with colorectal cancer (CRC) and the joint association between methyl diets and ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with CRC risk using logistic regression models.
A hospital-based case–control study.
In total, 1001 CRC cases and 899 cancer-free controls admitted to two university hospitals.
We found that alcohol intake increased the risk of CRC; OR (95 % CI) was 2·02 (1·41, 2·87) for ≥60 g/d drinkers compared with non-drinkers (Ptrend < 0·001). The associations for two polymorphisms with CRC were not statistically significant. However, we found a potential interaction of ALDH2 with methyl diets and CRC. We observed a 9·08-fold (95 % CI 1·93, 42·60) higher risk of CRC for low-methyl diets compared with high-methyl diets among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2, but the association was not apparent among those with ALDH2 GG (Pinteraction = 0·02).
Our data support the evidence that gene–methyl diet interactions may be involved in CRC risk in East Asian populations, showing that a low-methyl diet increased the risk of CRC among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2.
Nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) with grain size ranging between 59 and 386 nm was produced via powder metallurgy and heat treatment. The as-sintered HEA exhibited two face-centered cubic (FCC) phases (CoCrFeNi-rich and Cu-rich phases) and a small grain size (59 nm), whereas the alloy after heat treatment at 1000 °C exhibited a CoCuFeNi-rich phase with FCC structure and relatively larger grain size (386 nm). Moreover, the yield strength decreased from 1930 to 883 MPa, and plastic strain to failure increased by 8–32%. In terms of microstructural evolution, grain boundary strengthening coupled with lattice distortion was the dominant strengthening mechanism for NC HEAs. Furthermore, the coefficient for boundary strengthening was higher in the HEAs than in the corresponding pure elemental metals with FCC structure, possibly because of significant lattice distortion. The UFG HEAs exhibited high strength and good ductility because of the activation of dislocation.
The National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute neuropsychology protocol consists of only verbal tasks, and is proposed as a brief screening method for vascular cognitive impairment. We evaluated its feasibility within two weeks after stroke and ability to predict the development of post-stroke dementia (PSD) at 3 months after stroke.
We prospectively enrolled subjects with ischemic stroke within seven days of symptom onset who were consecutively admitted to 12 university hospitals. Neuropsychological assessments using the NINDS-CSN 5-minute and 60-minute neuropsychology protocols were administered within two weeks and at 3 months after stroke onset, respectively. PSD was diagnosed with reference to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statement, requiring deficits in at least two cognitive domains.
Of 620 patients, 512 (82.6%) were feasible for the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol within two weeks after stroke. The incidence of PSD was 16.2% in 308 subjects who had completed follow-up at 3 months after stroke onset. The total score of the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol differed significantly between those with and without PSD (4.0 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.7, respectively; p < 0.01). A cut-off value of 6/7 showed reasonable discriminative power (sensitivity 0.82, specificity 0.67, AUC 0.74). The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol score was a significant predictor for PSD (adjusted odds ratio 6.32, 95% CI 2.65–15.05).
The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is feasible to evaluate cognitive functions in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It might be a useful screening method for early identification of high-risk groups for PSD.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
This study investigated the inflammatory effect of intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC) on adhesion reformation in human rectus muscles. Ten consecutive patients who underwent medial rectus resection had their postoperative rectus muscles divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and MMC group (n = 10). In the MMC group, the muscle was soaked for 2 min with MMC, prepared as a 0.2 mg/mL (0.02%) solution. The 0.02% MMC reactions were examined using histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammatory response) and Masson's trichrome (collagen fibrils), immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-II (inflammatory response), and collagen type I and III, scanning electron microscopy analysis to quantify the diameter and D-periodicity of collagen fibrils, and atomic force microscopy analysis to quantify the diameter, D-periodicity, and adhesion force of collagen fibrils. The rectus muscles treated with 0.02% MMC showed a significantly increased inflammatory response (p < 0.05), increased collagen density (p < 0.0001), increased fibril diameter (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05), and decreased fibril adhesion force (p < 0.005) compared to the rectus muscles in the control group. MMC simultaneously caused an inflammatory response as well as nanostructural and biomechanical property changes in the collagen fibril network.
We present a rapid and sensitive surface acoustic wave (SAW) immunosensor that utilizes gold staining as a signal enhancement method. A sandwich immunoassay was performed on sensing area of the SAW sensor, which could specifically capture and detect cardiac markers (cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK)-MB, and myoglobin). The analytes in human serum were captured on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that were conjugated in advance with detection antibodies. Introduction of these complexes to the capture antibody-immobilized sensor surface resulted in a classic AuNP-based sandwich immunoassay format that has been used for signal amplification. In order to achieve further signal enhancement, a gold staining method was performed, which demonstrated that it is possible to obtain gold staining-mediated signal augmentation on a mass-sensitive device. The sensor response due to gold staining varied as a function of cardiac marker concentration.
Given a piecewise smooth function, it is possible to construct a global expansion in some complete orthogonal basis, such as the Fourier basis. However, the local discontinuities of the function will destroy the convergence of global approximations, even in regions for which the underlying function is analytic. The global expansions are contaminated by the presence of a local discontinuity, and the result is that the partial sums are oscillatory and feature non-uniform convergence. This characteristic behavior is called the Gibbs phenomenon. However, David Gottlieb and Chi-Wang Shu showed that these slowly and non-uniformly convergent global approximations retain within them high order information which can be recovered with suitable postprocessing. In this paper we review the history of the Gibbs phenomenon and the story of its resolution.
Knowledge of mechanics in atelectasis (alveolar collapse) and reinflation would be useful during anesthesia and critical care. Here an investigation is presented in which atelectasis is induced in a controlled manner on excised inflated lungs using spherical indentation, and noninvasive imaging of the deformed subsurface region is performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Indentation loads are physiologic, and spatial dimensions are far larger than alveolar size to allow continuum discussions. Experimental observations of atelectasis are compared with finite element model calculations of maximum stresses. Finally, atelectasis is compared during inflation of lungs with different gases (e.g., air, oxygen/anesthesia mixture).
Boron carbide (B4C) is currently used in lightweight armors and high temperature materials, because it has high meting point, good hardness, low specific gravity and good mechanical properties. The sintering of boron carbide, however, is restricted by its high covalent bonding and B2O3 coatings on B4C particles surface which can cause a microstructural coarsening during sintering. Therefore, it is necessary to remove B2O3 film of By4C particles surface to restrict microstructural coarsening and densification of B4C. B4C ceramics were fabricated by a hot-press sintering and its sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated. The relative density of B4C ceramics were obtained by a hot-press sintering reached as high as 99% without any sintering additives. The mechanical properties of B4C ceramics was improved by a methanol washing which can remove B2O3 phase from a B4C powder surface. This improvement is resulted from the formation of homogeneous microstructure because the grain coarsening was suppressed by the elimination of B2O3 phase. Particularly, the mechanical properties of the sintered samples using a methanol washed powder improved compared with the samples using an as-received commercial powder.
Accurate mechanical property measurement of films on substrates by instrumented indentation requires a solution describing the effective modulus of the film/substrate system. Here, a first-order elastic perturbation solution for spherical punch indentation on a film/substrate system is presented. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were conducted for comparison with the analytic solution. FEM results indicate that the new solution is valid for a practical range of modulus mismatch, especially for a stiff film on a compliant substrate. It also shows that effective modulus curves for the spherical punch deviates from those of the flat punch when the thickness is comparable to contact size.
A number of physiological systems involve contact or indentation of solids with tensed surface layers. In this paper the contact problem of spherical indentation of a linear elastic solid, covered with a tensed membrane is addressed. Semianalytical solutions are obtained relating indentation force to contact radius, as well as contact radius to depth. Good agreement is found between derived equations and results from finite element method (FEM) simulations. In addition, effect of membrane on subsurface stresses is shown quantitatively and compared favorably to FEM results. This work is applicable to mechanical property assessment of a number of biological systems.
Accurate mechanical property measurement of films on substrates by instrumented indentation requires a solution describing the effective modulus of the film/substrate system. Here, a first-order elastic perturbation solution for spherical punch indentation on a film/substrate system is presented. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were conducted for comparison with the analytic solution. FEM results indicate that the new solution is valid for a practical range of modulus mismatch, especially for a stiff film on a compliant substrate.
Vertically-aligned Mn (10%)-doped Fe3O4 (Fe2.7Mn0.3O4) nanowire arrays were produced by the reduction/substitution of pre-grown Fe2O3 nanowires. These nanowires were ferromagnetic with a Verwey temperature of 129 K. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements revealed that the Mn2+ ions preferentially occupy the tetrahedral sites, substituting for the Fe3+ ions. We observed that the Mn substitution decreases the magnetization, but increases the electrical conductivity. We developed highly sensitive gas sensors using these nanowire arrays, operating at room temperature, whose sensitivity showed a correlation with their bond strength of diatomic/triatomic molecules. Based on the fact that the sensitivity was highest toward water vapor, an excellent-performance humidity sensor was fabricated.
We report on the insulator-charging-effects of poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) gate dielectric on the reliabilities of pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). Our PVP films were prepared by spin coating and curing at various temperatures (155, 175, and 200 °C). Evaluated using Au/PVP/p+−Si structures, the dielectric strength of PVP films cured at 175 °C was superior to those of the other PVP films cured at different temperatures. Although saturation current and field mobility (∼0.13 cm2/Vs) obtained from a TFT with PVP film cured at 200 °C appeared higher than those (∼0.07 cm2/Vs) from the device with 175 °C-cured polymer film, the TFT prepared at 200 °C revealed a low on/off current ratio of less than 104 due to its high off-state current and also unreliable saturation behavior under repetitive gate voltage sweep. The unreliable behavior is due to the dielectric-charging caused by gate-electron-injection. We thus conclude that there are some optimal PVP-curing conditions to improve the reliability of pentacene TFT.
The H+-ion treatment effect on TlH2PO4, a KH2PO4 (KDP)-type ferroelectrics, was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and AC dielectric measurements. A sample of TlH2PO4 was irradiated by 1-MeV H+ ion beams to a dose of 1015 ions/cm2. The irradiation changed the hydrogen-bond geometry, presumably affecting the order-disorder proton dynamics. The deformation of the PO4 tetrahedra was identified by the isotropic chemical shift and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the high-resolution 31P NMR spectra. A prominent decrease in the dielectric constant was also observed after the irradiation. The macroscopic and microscopic changes due to the irradiation are discussed in the light of the proton dynamics.
We have investigated proton beam irradiation effects on TlH2PO4 (TDP) showing an antiferroelectric phase transition and a ferroelastic phase transition. The sample was irradiated by 1 MeV proton beams to a dose of 1015 ions/cm2 and studied by means of 1H NMR measurements. The NMR rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time was measured as a function of temperature, and analyzed in order to understand the proton motions and the order parameter reflecting the structural changes caused by the proton irradiation.
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