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For decades, fructose intake has been recognized as an environmental risk for metabolic syndromes and diseases. Here, we comprehensively examined effects of fructose intake on mice liver transcriptomes. Fructose supplemented water (34%; wt/vol) was fed to both male and female C57BL/6N mice at their free will for six weeks, followed by hepatic transcriptomics analysis. Based on our criteria, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected and subjected to further computational analyses to predict key pathways and upstream regulator(s). Subsequently, predicted genes and pathways from the transcriptomics dataset were validated via quantitative RT-PCR analyses. As results, we identified 89 down-regulated and 88 up-regulated mRNAs in fructose-fed mice livers. These DEGs were subjected to bioinformatic analysis tools in which DEGs were mainly enriched in xenobiotic metabolic processes; further, in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, it was suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an upstream regulator governing overall changes, while fructose suppresses the AhR signaling pathway. In our quantitative RT-PCR validation, we confirmed that fructose suppressed AhR signaling through modulating expressions of transcription factor (Arnt) and upstream regulators (Ncor2, and Rb1). Altogether, we demonstrated that ad libitum fructose intake suppresses the canonical AhR signaling pathway in C57BL/6N mice liver. Based on our current observations, further studies are warranted, especially with regard to the effects of co-exposure to fructose on 1) other types of carcinogens and 2) inflammation inducing agents (or even diets such as a high-fat diet), to find implications of fructose induced-AhR suppression.
Given that only a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia responds to first-line antipsychotic drugs, a key clinical question is what underlies treatment response. Observations that prefrontal activity correlates with striatal dopaminergic function, have led to the hypothesis that disrupted frontostriatal functional connectivity (FC) could be associated with altered dopaminergic function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frontostriatal FC and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with schizophrenia who had responded to first-line antipsychotic drug compared with those who had failed but responded to clozapine.
Twenty-four symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia were recruited from Seoul National University Hospital, 12 of which responded to first-line antipsychotic drugs (first-line AP group) and 12 under clozapine (clozapine group), along with 12 matched healthy controls. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]DOPA PET scans.
No significant difference was found in the total PANSS score between the patient groups. Voxel-based analysis showed a significant correlation between frontal FC to the associative striatum and the influx rate constant of [18F]DOPA in the corresponding region in the first-line AP group. Region-of-interest analysis confirmed the result (control group: R2 = 0.019, p = 0.665; first-line AP group: R2 = 0.675, p < 0.001; clozapine group: R2 = 0.324, p = 0.054) and the correlation coefficients were significantly different between the groups.
The relationship between striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and frontostriatal FC is different between responders to first-line treatment and clozapine treatment in schizophrenia, indicating that a different pathophysiology could underlie schizophrenia in patients who respond to first-line treatments relative to those who do not.
To evaluate the appropriateness of the screening strategy for healthcare personnel (HCP) during a hospital-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation in 189 rRT-PCR–negative HCP exposed and assigned to MERS patients. Although 20%–25% of HCP experienced MERS-like symptoms, none of them showed seroconversion by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
A life-threatening cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related injury can cause recurrent arrest after return of circulation. Such injuries are difficult to identify during resuscitation, and their contribution to failed resuscitation can be missed given the limitations of conventional CPR. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), increasingly being considered for selected patients with potentially reversible etiology of arrest, may identify previously occult CPR-related injuries by restoring arterial pressure and flow. Herein, we describe two cases of severe CPR-related injuries contributing to recurrent arrest. Each case had ECPR implemented within 60 minutes of the start of CPR. After the presumed cardiac etiology had been addressed with percutaneous coronary intervention, life-threatening cardiovascular injuries with recurrent arrest were noted, and resuscitative thoracotomy was performed under ECPR. One patient survived to hospital discharge.
ECPR may provide an opportunity to identify and correct severe resuscitation-related injuries causing recurrent arrest. Chest compression depth >6 cm, especially in older women, may contribute to these injuries.
Semi-insulating undoped GaN films were grown based on controlling the size of the nucleation sites through a special two-step growth method: First, 16 nm LT-GaN was annealed at 950 ° with a ramping time of 4 min, then the GaN was grown at this temperature for 1 min. Second, the growth temperature was increased to 1020° with a ramping time of 2 min and the GaN layer finally grown at 1020 ° for 40 min. The film grown by this sequence exhibited sheet resistance of up to 109 Ω/sq with mirror-like surface morphology. By slow ramping to 950° in the initial phase of growth, smaller grain sizes and higher nuclei densities were formed and the columnar growth mode along the c direction was dominant. The observation of higher resistance in two-step growth is believed due to the increased misorientation of nuclei when the growth proceeds during temperature ramping to 1020°. The fabricated saw filter on semi-insulating GaN exhibited a high velocity of 5342 m/s at center frequencies of 133.57 MHz and an electromechanical coupling coefficient(k2) of about 0.763 %, which was enhanced due to the improvement of surface morphology with high sheet resistance by the two- step ramping technique.
The liquid phase plasma reduction method has been applied to prepare silver nanoparticles from a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using a bipolar pulsed electrical discharge system. The excited states of atomic silver, hydrogen and oxygen as well as the molecular bands of hydroxyl radicals were detected in the emission spectra. As the discharge duration increased up to 10 min, silver particle peaks produced by surface plasmon absorption were observed around 430 nm. Both the particle size and the particle numbers were observed to increase with the length of the plasma treatment time and with the initial AgNO3 concentration. Spherical nanoparticles of about 5–20 nm in size were obtained with the discharging time of 5 min, whereas aggregates of nanoparticles of about 10–50 nm in size were mainly produced with the discharging time of 20 min. The cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) added with the CTAB/AgNO3 molar ratio of 30% was shown to inhibit nanoparticle aggregation.
We investigated the relationship of oestrogen receptor (ER) status to the severity of depressive symptoms and quality of life (QOL) impairment in breast cancer patients.
Seventy-seven breast cancer patients with comorbid depression were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) for depression, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B). ER status was determined using immunohistochemical analysis.
The ER-positive group (n = 31) showed significantly higher scores compared with the ER-negative group (n = 46) on HAMD total (p = 0.04) and somatic anxiety factor (p = 0.004) scores as well as CGI-S score (p = 0.03). As for QOL measured with the FACT-B, a significantly higher score was found on the Functional Well-Being (FWB) subscale in the ER-positive group (p = 0.001). The relationships were further analysed using generalised linear models (GLM), after controlling for the influence of the current anti-oestrogen treatment. The analysis revealed that ER status was still significantly related to the FWB subscale score of the FACT-B (p = 0.04). However, the HAMD and CGI-S scores were no longer significantly related to ER status after the influence of anti-oestrogen treatment was controlled for.
These results suggest that ER status, which is a well-known biological prognostic factor in breast cancer, may be related to the severity of certain aspects of depressive symptoms or QOL impairment, implying a role of the ER in affective and behavioural regulation. However, anti-oestrogen treatments significantly influence these relationships.
We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene set. The biological core networks of the hepatic TH/SH Unique gene set were characterised as those genes involved in the activation of acute inflammatory responses (Orm1, Lbp, Hp and Cfb), disordered lipid metabolism and deregulated cell cycle progression. Networks of the pulmonary Unique gene set displayed the deregulation of cell cycle progression (Cdc20, Cdk1 and Bub1b). These HFD-influenced alterations may have led to favourable conditions for the formation of both pro-inflammatory and pro-mitotic microenvironments in the target organs that promote immune cell infiltration and differentiation, as well as the infiltration and proliferation of metastatic tumour cells.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate fish guild compositions and national river health using a multi-metric model of the Korean index of biological integrity using fishes (K-IBIF) in four major Korean watersheds along with water chemistry and habitat quality. Tolerant and omnivore fish species dominated all the watersheds, and the proportions of tolerance guilds and trophic guilds reflected water chemistry and habitat quality. The number of sensitive species and insectivore species had negative correlations (r < −0.42, P < 0.01) with chemical water quality (biological oxygen demand (BOD)), while tolerant species and omnivore species had positive correlation (r > 0.27, P < 0.05) with BOD values. Physical habit conditions, based on qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI) model, indicated a “good” condition (mean = 68.9; range = 45–105) in three watersheds, except for the Yeongsan River watershed. Values of QHEI were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.4, P < 0.01) with nitrogen and phosphorus levels in all watersheds, suggesting that habitat degradation is associated with eutrophication. Model values of K-IBIF in the watersheds averaged 18.2, indicating a “fair” condition, and about 37% of all observations in K-IBIF model values were judged as a “poor” health condition, indicating severe health impairment. Overall, our data suggest that degradation of the river health was due to a combined effect of chemical pollution and physical habitat modifications. This research provides valuable information on Korean river conservation and restoration in the future.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are an increasingly common radiological finding in stroke, neurological and general medical practice. There are two published CMB rating scales that have been validated in hospital cohorts of stroke patients. The rating scales are the microbleed anatomical rating scale (MARS) and the brain observer micro bleed scale (BOMBS). This chapter considers the radiological criteria for defining CMBs and then discusses these standardized rating scales. The potential for automatically detecting and mapping CMBs in future is discussed briefly in the chapter. Mapping CMBs gives information on the burden of CMBs in different anatomical regions in the brain. Quantifying the number of CMBs may be relevant in exploring their relationship with other quantitative imaging or clinical data and for prognostic purposes. Although visual rating scales can improve the reliability of identifying and mapping CMBs, more sophisticated automated methods are under investigation.
Pt/Sr0.85Bi2.4Ta2O9/TiO2/Si structures were prepared with variation of the Sr0.85Bi2.4Ta2O9 (SBT) film thickness for MFIS-FET applications. After depositing TiO2 film of 10 nm thickness by reactive sputtering on Si(100) substrate as a buffer layer, SBT thin film of 210-400 nm thickness was prepared onto it by metal organic decomposition process. Regardless of the SBT film thickness, the Pt/SBT/TiO2/Si structures exhibited clockwise directional hysteresis, indicating well-defined ferroelectric switching behavior of the SBT films. While the memory window of the Pt/SBT/TiO2/Si MFIS structures increased with increasing the SBT film thickness, the maximum capacitance of the Pt/SBT/TiO2/Si MFIS structures decreased with increasing the SBT film thickness. The Pt/SBT(400 nm)/TiO2(10 nm)/Si structure exhibited a memory window of 1.3 V at ±5 V.
Metal matrix composites (MMC's) are known to have wide applications in parts of transportation devices such as automobiles and aircraft. Al matrix composites using SiC particles as reinforcements are especially spotlighted because of low cost, superior specific modulus, specific strength, wear resistance and high temperature stability. However, Al4C3 formed by the interfacial reaction between Al and SiC weakens the interfacial bonding strength. It is also known to be unstable in the water-soluble atmosphere.
In this study, the passive oxidation of SiC powder is used as protective layer against the reaction between the Al matrix and the SiC particle. We investigated the changes in interfacial product of the composites and mechanical properties such as interfacial bonding strength, and tensile strength in terms of the oxidized layer thickness of the reinforcement.
CuInSe2 films were prepared by the three-stage process using the evaporation of In2Se3, Cu2Se and Se. In the third stage, the depth of Cu-poor surface region was precisely adjusted by the control of the evaporation rate of In2Se3 and Se. The interface between Cu-poor surface region and stoichiometric CuInSe2 film was characterized using AES, microEDAX, and RBS. The 9.59% efficiency was achieved in the 0.16 cm2 area cell. The efficiency is the same level of the CIS cell prepared using the element coevaporation, opening up the application of binary compounds for highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cells.
We propose a short channel gate overlapped lightly doped drain (GOLDD) poly-Si TFT employing 45° tilt implant for source and drain (S/D) regions without any additional ion doping or mask. Oblique-incident ELA activation is performed to activate both n+ S/D and n- LDD regions as well as cure junction defects. The proposed poly-Si TFT can suppress the anomalous leakage current, and exhibit the better reliability against the hot-carrier stress.
In this study, the quality of thin film diode (TFD) as a switching device for active-matrix liquid-crystal-displays (AM-LCDs) was enhanced by low temperature annealing conditions with high reliability and good electrical properties. Device was composed with Ta as bottom electrode, anodic Ta2O5 as insulator layer and top electrode. Two types of material such as Ti and Cr were evaluated as a top electrode of the TFD device to optimize the symmetry of current-voltage characteristic curve, respectively. The annealing was done at low temperature conditions below 350°C. The low temperature annealing improved the TFD device with nearly perfect symmetry under high electric field.