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This research pertained to personal goals during retirement and especially to the influence of tenacity and flexibility on measures of psychological well-being. The participants (N = 147) had been retired for less than three years and were aged between 49 and 75 years (M = 58 years). The participants had to identify four personal goals and rate each of them along 15 dimensions. Psychological well-being was evaluated with scales of depression, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Regression analyses showed that flexibility in the presence of obstacles to the realization of goals accounts for 44 per cent of the variance in depression, 29 per cent of life satisfaction and 25 per cent of self-esteem. Tenacity had a more modest impact. Flexibility seems to be the strategy which is most useful in facing difficulties in the pursuit of goals during retirement.
This paper presents a French adaptation of the Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA) instrument. The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric qualities of the French version and to test its validity by replicating age and sex differences in a large sample of French speaking adults. The MIA was administered to 120 males and 185 females, aged between 18 and 95. The initial factor structure of the MIA was replicated and the eight metamemory dimensions were identified, although there was some overlap between the dimensions. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients; seven of the eight scales were found to be reliable. The intercorrelations between the dimensions were also examined and revealed that each scale is tapping a specific aspect of metamemory. Finally, the analyses of variance confirmed the existence of significant age differences on five scales of the MIA and sex differences on three dimensions.
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