Some contemporary historians maintain that the administrative reforms of Charles III (1759-1788), bear a substantial part of the blame for the disruption of the Spanish empire. These reforms, they argue, alienated the American population. By ending the corrupt practices that had allowed Creoles to control their own affairs, the crown sowed the seeds of independence. Implicit in this view is the thesis that Charles' Minister of the Indies, José de Gálvez (1776-1787), carried out a “revolution in government” which permanently altered the behavior of the high colonial bureaucracy. Presumably, whereas Hapsburg administrators had been chiefly occupied with the pragmatic achievement of tasks, regardless of the means employed, Bourbon administrators became increasingly concerned with the mindless enforcement of rules devised in the Peninsula. In this fashion the autonomy of the bureaucracy was eroded, and the colonial population was deprived of its traditional means of influencing policy formation.