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Although no drugs are licensed for the treatment of personality disorder, pharmacological treatment in clinical practice remains common.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug use and associations with psychological service use among people with personality disorder.
Using data from a large, anonymised mental healthcare database, we identified all adult patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder and ascertained psychotropic medication use between 1 August 2015 and 1 February 2016. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed, adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors, to examine the association between psychological services use and psychotropic medication prescribing.
Of 3366 identified patients, 2029 (60.3%) were prescribed some form of psychotropic medication. Patients using psychological services were significantly less likely to be prescribed psychotropic medication (adjusted odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.39–0.59, P<0.001) such as antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. This effect was maintained following several sensitivity analyses. We found no difference in the risk for mood stabiliser (adjusted odds ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.57–1.10, P = 0.169) and multi-class psychotropic use (adjusted odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07, P = 0.133) between patients who did and did not use psychological services.
Psychotropic medication prescribing is common in patients with personality disorder, but significantly less likely in those who have used psychological services. This does not appear to be explained by differences in demographic, clinical and service use characteristics. There is a need to develop clear prescribing guidelines and conduct research in clinical settings to examine medication effectiveness for this population.
Background: Antibiotic overuse contributes to antibiotic resistance and unnecessary adverse drug effects. Antibiotic stewardship interventions have primarily focused on acute-care settings. Most antibiotic use, however, occurs in outpatients with acute respiratory tract infections such as pharyngitis. The electronic health record (EHR) might provide an effective and efficient tool for outpatient antibiotic stewardship. We aimed to develop and validate an electronic algorithm to identify inappropriate antibiotic use for pediatric outpatients with pharyngitis. Methods: This study was conducted within the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) Care Network, including 31 pediatric primary care practices and 3 urgent care centers with a shared EHR serving >250,000 children. We used International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes to identify encounters for pharyngitis at any CHOP practice from March 15, 2017, to March 14, 2018, excluding those with concurrent infections (eg, otitis media, sinusitis), immunocompromising conditions, or other comorbidities that might influence the need for antibiotics. We randomly selected 450 features for detailed chart abstraction assessing patient demographics as well as practice and prescriber characteristics. Appropriateness of antibiotic use based on chart review served as the gold standard for evaluating the electronic algorithm. Criteria for appropriate use included streptococcal testing, use of penicillin or amoxicillin (absent β-lactam allergy), and a 10-day duration of therapy. Results: In 450 patients, the median age was 8.4 years (IQR, 5.5–9.0) and 54% were women. On chart review, 149 patients (33%) received an antibiotic, of whom 126 had a positive rapid strep result. Thus, based on chart review, 23 subjects (5%) diagnosed with pharyngitis received antibiotics inappropriately. Amoxicillin or penicillin was prescribed for 100 of the 126 children (79%) with a positive rapid strep test. Of the 126 children with a positive test, 114 (90%) received the correct antibiotic: amoxicillin, penicillin, or an appropriate alternative antibiotic due to b-lactam allergy. Duration of treatment was correct for all 126 children. Using the electronic algorithm, the proportion of inappropriate prescribing was 28 of 450 (6%). The test characteristics of the electronic algorithm (compared to gold standard chart review) for identification of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing were sensitivity (99%, 422 of 427); specificity (100%, 23 of 23); positive predictive value (82%, 23 of 28); and negative predictive value (100%, 422 of 422). Conclusions: For children with pharyngitis, an electronic algorithm for identification of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is highly accurate. Future work should validate this approach in other settings and develop and evaluate the impact of an audit and feedback intervention based on this tool.
Background: Antibiotic resistance has increased at alarming rates, driven predominantly by antibiotic overuse. Although most antibiotic use occurs in outpatients, antimicrobial stewardship programs have primarily focused on inpatient settings. A major challenge for outpatient stewardship is the lack of accurate and accessible electronic data to target interventions. We sought to develop and validate an electronic algorithm to identify inappropriate antibiotic use for outpatients with acute bronchitis. Methods: This study was conducted within the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS). We used ICD-10 diagnostic codes to identify encounters for acute bronchitis at any outpatient UPHS practice between March 15, 2017, and March 14, 2018. Exclusion criteria included underlying immunocompromising condition, other comorbidity influencing the need for antibiotics (eg, emphysema), or ICD-10 code at the same visit for a concurrent infection (eg, sinusitis). We randomly selected 300 (150 from academic practices and 150 from nonacademic practices) eligible subjects for detailed chart abstraction that assessed patient demographics and practice and prescriber characteristics. Appropriateness of antibiotic use based on chart review served as the gold standard for assessment of the electronic algorithm. Because antibiotic use is not indicated for this study population, appropriateness was assessed based upon whether an antibiotic was prescribed or not. Results: Of 300 subjects, median age was 61 years (interquartile range, 50–68), 62% were women, 74% were seen in internal medicine (vs family medicine) practices, and 75% were seen by a physician (vs an advanced practice provider). On chart review, 167 (56%) subjects received an antibiotic. Of these subjects, 1 had documented concern for pertussis and 4 had excluding conditions for which there were no ICD-10 codes. One received an antibiotic prescription for a planned dental procedure. Thus, based on chart review, 161 (54%) subjects received antibiotics inappropriately. Using the electronic algorithm based on diagnostic codes, underlying and concurrent conditions, and prescribing data, the number of subjects with inappropriate prescribing was 170 (56%) because 3 subjects had antibiotic prescribing not noted based on chart review. The test characteristics of the electronic algorithm (compared to gold standard chart review) for identification of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing were the following: sensitivity, 100% (161 of 161); specificity, 94% (130 of 139); positive predictive value, 95% (161 of 170); and negative predictive value, 100% (130 of 130). Conclusions: For outpatients with acute bronchitis, an electronic algorithm for identification of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is highly accurate. This algorithm could be used to efficiently assess prescribing among practices and individual clinicians. The impact of interventions based on this algorithm should be tested in future studies.
Geothermal heat flux (GHF) is an important control on the dynamics of Antarctica's ice sheet because it controls basal melt and internal deformation. However, it is hard to estimate because of a lack of in-situ measurements. Estimating GHF from ice-borehole temperature profiles is possible by combining a heat-transfer equation and the physical properties of the ice sheet in a numerical model. In this study, we truncate ice-borehole temperature profiles to determine the minimum ratio of temperature profile depth to ice-sheet thickness required to produce acceptable GHF estimations. For Law Dome, a temperature profile that is within 60% of the local ice thickness is sufficient for an estimation that is within approximately one median absolute deviation of the whole-profile GHF estimation. This result is compared with the temperature profiles at Dome Fuji and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet divide which require a temperature profile that is 80% and more than 91% of the ice thickness, respectively, for comparable accuracy. In deriving GHF median estimations from truncated temperature profiles, it is possible to discriminate between available GHF models. This is valuable for assessing and constraining future GHF models.
Previous research in clinical, community, and school settings has demonstrated positive outcomes for the Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills training program. This is designed to help children on the autism spectrum become more aware of emotions in themselves and others and to ‘problem-solve’ complex social scenarios. Parents play a key role in the implementation of the SAS program, attending information and support sessions with other parents and providing supervision, rewards, and feedback as their children complete weekly ‘home mission’ assignments. Drawing on data from a school-based evaluation of the SAS program, we examined whether parents’ engagement with these elements of the intervention was linked to the quality of their children’s participation and performance. Sixty-eight 8–14-year-olds (M age = 10.7) with a diagnosis of autism participated in the program. The findings indicated that ratings of parental engagement were positively correlated with children’s competence in completing home missions and with the quality of their contribution during group teaching sessions. However, there was a less consistent relationship between parental engagement and measures of children’s social and emotional skill gains over the course of the program.
This descriptive paper aims to describe the design and implementation of a community engaged primary healthcare strategy in rural Australia, the Primary Healthcare Registered Nurse: Schools-Based strategy. This strategy seeks to address the health, education and social inequities confronting children and adolescents through community engaged service provision and nursing practice.
There have been increasing calls for primary healthcare approaches to address rural health inequities, including contextualised healthcare, enhanced healthcare access, community engagement in needs and solutions identification and local-level collaborations. However, rural healthcare can be poorly aligned to community contexts and needs and be firmly entrenched in health systems, marginalising community participation.
This strategy has been designed to enhance nursing service and practice responsiveness to the rural context, primary healthcare principles, and community experiences and expectations of healthcare. The strategy is underpinned by a cross-sector collaboration between a local health district, school education and a university department of rural health. A research framework is being developed to explore strategy impacts for service recipients, cross-sector systems, and the establishment and maintenance of a primary healthcare nursing workforce.
Although in the early stages of implementation, key learnings have been acquired and strategic, relationship, resource and workforce gains achieved.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate executive skills in children with dystrophinopathy and to examine the association between executive functions and dystrophin gene mutation position. Methods: Fifty boys with dystrophinopathy (mean age, 11 years 0 months; ages range, 5 to 17 years) completed measures of intellectual functioning (IF), working memory and executive functioning [including Digit Span (working memory) and measures from the NIH Toolbox (selective attention/inhibitory control, set shifting, working memory, and processing speed)]. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Mutation positions were categorized into three groups (upstream exon 30, 31–62, and downstream exon 63). Paired-samples t tests compared performance on executive measures to IF, and a one-way (three-group) multivariate analysis of covariance compared cognitive performance with mutation location controlling for motor functioning. Results: Mean performance on all executive measures was significantly lower than IF. Parents were also more likely to rate their child with dystrophinopathy as having clinically significant executive difficulties on the Shift, Emotional Control, and Behavior Regulation indices of the BRIEF. Mutation analyses resulted in small groups limiting power to detect subtle differences. Those with a downstream mutation position had significantly poorer performance on IF and Total Digit Span, but not on other measures of executive function including behavior. Conclusions: Individuals with dystrophinopathy have executive skill deficits, but they are not generally associated with more distal mutations. (JINS, 2019, 25, 146–155)
Objectives: To examine academic performance in dystrophinopathy as a function of dystrophin gene mutation position as well as intellectual function, executive skills, socioeconomic status (SES), behavior, and physical ability. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, boys with dystrophinopathy (ages 5–17; n=50) completed tests of academics (Woodcock-Johnson-III: spelling, reading, calculation and total scores), executive functioning (selective attention/inhibitory control, set shifting, working memory, and processing speed), single word comprehension and nonverbal reasoning. Motor skills were assessed and parents provided demographic information and child behavioral assessments. Dystrophin gene mutation positions were dichotomized into groups (upstream versus downstream of exon 43, location of isoforms previously linked to intellectual impairment). Genetic mutation groups were compared on measures of academic achievement, and multiple regression analyses examined unique and joint contributions of executive skills, intelligence quotient (IQ), SES, motor abilities, behavior, and mutation positions to academic outcomes. Results: Academic performance was slightly, yet significantly, lower than IQ and varied as a function of dystrophin gene position, wherein boys possessing the downstream mutation exhibited greater impairment than boys with the upstream mutation. Digit span forward (indexing verbal span), but no other measure of executive function, contributed significant variance to total academic achievement, spelling and calculation. Conclusions: Weak academic performance is associated with dystrophinopathy and is more common in downstream mutations. A specific deficit in verbal span may underlie inefficiencies observed in children with dystrophinopathy and may drive deficits impacting academic abilities. (JINS, 2018, 24, 928–938)
Correcting a sign error results in no changes to the key conclusions of Hutchings and others (2011). However, there is an improved agreement with previous work. Mean total sea-ice deformation scales log linearly with distance and the scaling exponent was found to be dependent on time. We find a linear relationship between the temporal scale and spatial scaling exponent, for timescales of an hour to a day. Extrapolating to the timescales of deformation resolved by RADARSAT, we find total deformation and distance scale with an exponent of between −0.16 and −0.19.
In a 2015 report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM; Washington, DC USA), now the National Academy of Medicine (NAM; Washington, DC USA), stated that the field of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) exhibits signs of fragmentation; an absence of system-wide coordination and planning; and a lack of federal, state, and local accountability. The NAM recommended clarifying what roles the federal government, state governments, and local communities play in the oversight and evaluation of EMS system performance, and how they may better work together to improve care.
This systematic literature review and environmental scan addresses NAM’s recommendations by answering two research questions: (1) what aspects of EMS systems are most measured in the peer-reviewed and grey literatures, and (2) what do these measures and studies suggest for high-quality EMS oversight?
To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted in the PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA), SCOPUS (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands), and EMBASE (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands) databases for peer-reviewed literature and for grey literature; targeted web searches of 10 EMS-related government agencies and professional organizations were performed. Inclusion criteria required peer-reviewed literature to be published between 1966-2016 and grey literature to be published between 1996-2016. A total of 1,476 peer-reviewed titles were reviewed, 76 were retrieved for full-text review, and 58 were retained and coded in the qualitative software Dedoose (Manhattan Beach, California USA) using a codebook of themes. Categorizations of measure type and level of application were assigned to the extracted data. Targeted websites were systematically reviewed and 115 relevant grey literature documents were retrieved.
A total of 58 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria; 46 included process, 36 outcomes, and 18 structural measures. Most studies applied quality measures at the personnel level (40), followed by the agency (28) and system of care (28), and few at the oversight level (5). Numerous grey literature articles provided principles for high-quality EMS oversight.
Limited quality measurement at the oversight level is an important gap in the peer-reviewed literature. The grey literature is ahead in this realm and can guide the policy and research agenda for EMS oversight quality measurement.
TaymourRK, AbirM, ChamberlinM, DunneRB, LowellM, WahlK, ScottJ. Policy, Practice, and Research Agenda for Emergency Medical Services Oversight: A Systematic Review and Environmental Scan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):89–97.
While the use of formal trauma teams is widely promoted, the literature is not clear that this structure provides improved outcomes over emergency physician delivered trauma care. The goal of this investigation was to examine if a trauma team model with a formalized, specialty-based trauma team, with specific activation criteria and staff composition, performs differently than an emergency physician delivered model. Our primary outcome was survival to discharge or 30 days.
An observational registry-based study using aggregate data from both the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia trauma registries was performed with data from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients 16 years-old and older who had an Injury Severity Score greater than 12, who suffered a kinetic injury and arrived with signs of life to a level-1 trauma centre.
266 patients from the trauma team model and 111 from the emergency physician model were compared. No difference was found in the primary outcome of proportion of survival to discharge or 30 days between the two systems (0.88, n=266 vs. 0.89, n=111; p=0.8608).
We were unable to detect any difference in survival between a trauma team and an emergency physician delivered model.
Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic that was evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia in a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study. Here, we present exploratory analyses of supportive efficacy endpoints.
Patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia received AL 441 mg intramuscularly (IM), AL 882 mg IM, or matching placebo IM monthly. Supportive endpoints included changes from baseline at subsequent time points in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale score; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total score; PANSS Positive, Negative, and General Psychopathology subscale scores; PANSS Marder factors (post hoc); and PANSS responder rate. Overall response rate, based on PANSS Total score and Clinical Global Impression–Improvement (CGI-I) scale score, was also analyzed.
Of 622 patients who were randomized, 596 had ≥1 post-baseline PANSS score. Patients were markedly ill at baseline (mean PANSS Total scores 92–94). Compared with placebo, CGI-S scores; PANSS Positive, Negative, and General Psychopathology subscale scores; and PANSS Marder factors were all significantly (p<0.001) improved by Day 85 with both AL doses, with significantly lower scores starting from Day 8 in most instances. Treatment response rates were significantly (p<0.001) greater with both doses of AL vs placebo.
AL demonstrated robust efficacy on CGI-S score, PANSS subscale scores, PANSS Marder factors, and response rates. Study limitations included use of a fixed dose for initial oral aripiprazole and fixed monthly AL doses without the option to individualize the oral initiation dosing or injection frequency for efficacy, tolerability, or safety.
Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) provides optimal nutrition for infants and mothers. The practice of EBF while adhering to antiretroviral medication decreases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV from approximately 25 % to less than 5 %. Thus the WHO recommends EBF for the first 6 months among HIV-infected women living in resource-limited settings; however, EBF rates remain low. In the present study our aim was to design and implement a pilot intervention promoting EBF among HIV-infected women.
The Information–Motivation–Behavioural Skills (IMB) model was applied in a brief motivational interviewing counselling session that was tested in a small randomized controlled trial.
Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, at two comparable rural public health service clinics.
Sixty-eight HIV-infected women in their third trimester were enrolled and completed baseline interviews between June and August 2014. Those randomized to the intervention arm received the IMB-based pilot intervention directly following baseline interviews. Follow-up interviews occurred at 6 weeks postpartum.
While not significantly different between trial arms, high rates of intention and practice of EBF at 6-week follow-up were reported. Findings showed high levels of self-efficacy being significantly predictive of breast-feeding initiation and duration regardless of intervention arm.
Future research must account for breast-feeding self-efficacy on sustaining breast-feeding behaviour and leverage strategies to enhance self-efficacy in supportive interventions. Supporting breast-feeding behaviour through programmes that include both individual-level and multi-systems components targeting the role of health-care providers, family and community may create environments that value and support EBF behaviour.
Background: Schema Theory proposes that the development of maladaptive schemas are based on a combination of memories, emotions and cognitions regarding oneself and one's relationship to others. A cognitive model of psychosis suggests that schemas are crucial to the development and persistence of psychosis. Little is known about the impact that schemas may have on those considered to be at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. Aims: To investigate schemas over time in a large sample of CHR individuals and healthy controls. Method: Sample included 765 CHR participants and 280 healthy controls. Schemas were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months using the Brief Core Schema Scale (BCSS). Baseline schemas were compared to 2-year clinical outcome. Results: CHR participants evidenced stable and more maladaptive schemas over time compared to controls. Schemas at initial contact did not vary amongst the different clinical outcome groups at 2 years although all CHR outcome groups evidenced significantly worse schemas than healthy controls. Although there were no differences on baseline schemas between those who later transitioned to psychosis compared to those who did not, those who transitioned to psychosis had more maladaptive negative self-schemas at the time of transition. Associations between negative schemas were positively correlated with earlier abuse and bullying. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a need for interventions that aim to improve maladaptive schemas among the CHR population. Therapies targeting self-esteem, as well as schema therapy may be important work for future studies.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
There are conflicting data on the role of anxiety in predicting mortality.
To evaluate the 10-year mortality risk associated with anxiety in community-dwelling elderly people.
Using data from 718 men and 1046 women aged 65 years and over, gender-stratified associations of anxiety symptoms (Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, third tertile) and current DSM-IV anxiety disorder including generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and phobia with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were determined.
In women, mortality risk was increased for anxiety disorder and GAD in multivariate Cox models (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.53, 95% Cl 1.02-2.27 and HR = 2.04, 95% Cl 1.08-3.86 respectively), whereas for phobia it was nearly significant (HR= 1.52, 95% Cl 0.94-2.47). Anxiety trait symptoms became non-significant as a result of the confounding effect of depressive symptoms. Anxiety disorder was associated with cardiovascular mortality in univariate analysis (HR = 2.42, 95% Cl 1.16-5.07). No significant associations were found in men.
Our study suggests a gender-specific association of anxiety and mortality.