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There is discontent and turnover among faculty at US academic health centers because of the challenges in balancing clinical, research, teaching, and work–life responsibilities in the current healthcare environment. One potential strategy to improve faculty satisfaction and limit turnover is through faculty mentoring programs.
A Mentor Leadership Council was formed to design and implement an institution-wide faculty mentoring program across all colleges at an academic health center. The authors conducted an experimental study of the impact of the mentoring program using pre-intervention (2011) and 6-year (2017) post-intervention faculty surveys that measured the long-term effectiveness of the program.
The percent of faculty who responded to the surveys was 45.9% (656/1428) in 2011 and 40.2% (706/1756) in 2017. For faculty below the rank of full professor, percent of faculty with a mentor (45.3% vs. 67.1%, P < 0.001), familiarity with promotion criteria (81.7% vs. 90.0%, P = 0.001), and satisfaction with department’s support of career (75.6% vs. 84.7%, P = 0.002) improved. The percent of full professors serving as mentors also increased from 50.3% in 2011 to 68.0% in 2017 (P = 0.002). However, the percent of non-retiring faculty considering leaving the institution over the next 2 years increased from 18.8% in 2011 to 24.3% in 2017 (P = 0.02).
Implementation of an institution-wide faculty mentoring program significantly improved metrics of career development and faculty satisfaction but was not associated with a reduction in the percent of faculty considering leaving the institution. This suggests the need for additional efforts to identify and limit factors driving faculty turnover.
The current study examined whether self-reported memory problems among cognitively intact older adults changed concurrently with, preceded, or followed depressive symptoms over time.
Data were collected annually via in-person comprehensive medical and neuropsychological examinations as part of the Einstein Aging Study.
Community-dwelling older adults in an urban, multi-ethnic area of New York City were interviewed.
The current study included a total of 1,162 older adults (Mage = 77.65, SD = 5.03, 63.39% female; 74.12% White). Data were utilized from up to 11 annual waves per participant.
Multilevel modeling tested concurrent and lagged associations between three types of memory self-report (frequency of memory problems, perceived one-year decline, and perceived ten-year decline) and depressive symptoms.
Results showed that self-reported frequency of memory problems covaried with depressive symptoms only in participants who were older at baseline. Changes in perceived one-year and ten-year memory decline were related to changes in depressive symptoms across all ages. Depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of perceived ten-year memory decline the next year; however, perceived ten-year memory decline did not predict future depressive symptoms. Additionally, no significant temporal relationship was observed between depressive symptoms and self-reported frequency of memory problems or perceived one-year memory decline.
Our findings highlight the importance of testing the unique associations of different types of self-reported memory problems with depressive symptoms.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Intensive lifestyle change (e.g., the Diabetes Prevention Program) and metformin reduce type 2 diabetes risk among patients with prediabetes. However, real-world uptake remains low. Shared decision-making (SDM) may increase awareness and help patients select and follow through with informed options for diabetes prevention that are aligned with their preferences.The objective was to test the effectiveness of a prediabetes SDM intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 20 primary care clinics within a large regional health system. Participants were overweight/obese adults with prediabetes (BMI>24 kg/m2 and HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) were enrolled from 10 SDM intervention clinics. Propensity score matching was used to identify control patients from 10 usual care clinics.Intervention clinic patients were invited to participate in a face-to-face SDM visit with a pharmacist who used a decision aid (DA) to describe prediabetes and four possible options for diabetes prevention; DPP, DPP +/− metformin, metformin only, or usual care. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Uptake of DPP and/or metformin was higher among SDM participants (n=351) than controls receiving usual care (n = 1,028; 38% vs. 2%, p<.001). At 12-months follow-up, adjusted weight loss (lbs.) was greater among SDM participants than controls (−5.3 vs. −0.2, p < .001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: A prediabetes SDM intervention led by pharmacists increased patient engagement in evidence-based options for diabetes prevention and was associated with significantly greater uptake of DPP and/or metformin at 4-months and weight loss at 12-months. Prediabetes SDM may be a promising approach to enhance prevention efforts among patients at increased risk.
Post-colonial thought affects the heart of Western science. Although there is comparatively little engagement with post-colonial theory in the fields traditionally concerned with human origins or human evolution, it should be of critical importance to Palaeolithic archaeology and human evolutionary studies. Examination of recent literature dealing with so-called modern human origins highlights key neglected aspects of this discourse, namely the status of nature and rationality, and demonstrates how these aspects are entangled with ongoing political and colonial influences on the production of knowledge.
It has been suggested that offspring of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), but the specificity of this association has not been established.
We examined the specificity of DMDD to family history by comparing offspring of parents with (a) bipolar disorder, (b) major depressive disorder and (c) a control group with no mood disorders.
We established lifetime diagnosis of DMDD using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children for DSM-5 in 180 youth aged 6–18 years, including 58 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, 82 offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and 40 control offspring.
Diagnostic criteria for DMDD were met in none of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, 6 of the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and none of the control offspring. DMDD diagnosis was significantly associated with family history of major depressive disorder.
Our results suggest that DMDD is not specifically associated with a family history of bipolar disorder and may be associated with parental depression.
To better understand the differences between coronal cloud prominences and channel prominences, we systematically identified and analyzed coronal cloud prominences recorded in SDO/AIA images at 304 Å from 2010 May 20 through 2012 April 28. For the 225 cases identified, their numbers vary directly with the sunspot number. Their durations are typically less than 3 days. Their most frequent maximum height is 90,000 + and - 10,000 km. We offer our hypothesis that many coronal cloud prominences originate from some of the mass of previously erupted filaments ejected high out of their filament channels; subsequently part of this mass falls and collects in leaky magnetic troughs among coronal magnetic fields which constrain the leaked mass to slowly drain downward along curved trajectories where it appears as coronal rain. Currently there is inadequate evidence for a convincing correspondence between either coronal cloud prominences or channel prominences with stellar prominences detected to date.
According to the World Health Organization guidelines, field tests, in the context of a bid for the supply of alcohol-based hand rubs, should take into account climatic region, test period, products already in use, and type of use (hygienic or surgical) when assessing tolerance. This laborious method is often contested.
To conduct a post hoc analysis of the data of a large bid, including 5 factors, to validate the relevance of their inclusion.
For the purposes of the bid, products were compared in terms of the 4 World Health Organization tolerance criteria (appearance, intactness, moisture content, sensation) during product testing and were separated into groups on the basis of the studied factors. The post hoc analysis method included (1) comparison of the mean before-and-after difference based on the self-evaluation of the skin with the 4 World Health Organization tolerance criteria, between climatic regions, periods, products in use, test product, and the type of use; (2) generalized linear models, taking into account all studied factors.
The analysis included data for 1,925 pairs of professionals. The means of the differences observed were independently and significantly associated with the test period (P<.001), the hygienic or surgical use (P=.010 to .041, not significant for appearance), the product already in use (significant for appearance P=.021), and the test product (P<.001). The association with climatic region was found to be significant only in the nonadjusted analysis.
The type of use, the test period, and the product in use should be taken into account when designing field tests of alcohol-based hand rubs.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Argon incorporation and defect creation were studied experimentally. Direct desorption measurements have been used to establish the argon implantation profile. A projected range and range straggle of 0.8 and 3.5 Å were found. Argon is incorporated at substitutional positions. The creation rate of defects by argon was studied by helium desorption spectrometry. A net creation rate of (0.7 ± 0.4) × 10−3 vacancy/argon atom was found. Ion assisted deposition at elevated substrate temperatures shows that all incorporated argon acts as helium trap. Argon fluence variations show an effective cross-section for self sputtering of 31 Å2, a trapping probability of 6.5%, and a maximum achievable argon concentration of 4 × 10−3
Physical activity is influenced by genetic factors whose expression may change with age. We employed an extension to the classical twin model that allows a modifier variable, age, to interact with the effects of the latent genetic and environmental factors. The model was applied to self-reported data from twins aged 19 to 50 from seven countries that collaborated in the GenomEUtwin project: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom. Results confirmed the importance of genetic influences on physical activity in all countries and showed an age-related decrease in heritability for 4 countries. In the other three countries age did not interact with heritability but those samples were smaller or had a more restricted age range. Effects of shared environment were absent, except in older Swedish participants. The study confirms the importance of taking age effects into account when exploring the genetic and environmental contribution to physical activity. It also suggests that the power of genome-wide association studies to identify the genetic variants contributing to physical activity may be larger in young adult cohorts.
Persistent tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption are major public health concerns worldwide. Both alcohol and nicotine dependence (AD, ND) are genetically influenced complex disorders that exhibit a high degree of comorbidity. To identify gene variants contributing to one or both of these addictions, we first conducted a pooling-based genomewide association study (GWAS) in an Australian population, using Illumina Infinium 1M arrays. Allele frequency differences were compared between pooled DNA from case and control groups for: (1) AD, 1224 cases and 1162 controls; (2) ND, 1273 cases and 1113 controls; and (3) comorbid AD and ND, 599 cases and 488 controls. Secondly, we carried out a GWAS in independent samples from the Netherlands for AD and for ND. Thirdly, we performed a meta-analysis of the 10, 000 most significant AD- and ND-related SNPs from the Australian and Dutch samples. In the Australian GWAS, one SNP achieved genomewide significance (p < 5 x 10-8) for ND (rs964170 in ARHGAPlOon chromosome 4, p = 4.43 x 10”8) and three others for comorbid AD/ND (rs7530302 near MARK1 on chromosome 1 (p = 1.90 x 10-9), rs1784300 near DDX6 on chromosome 11 (p = 2.60 x 10-9) and rs12882384 in KIAA1409 on chromosome 14 (p = 4.86 x 10-8)). None of the SNPs achieved genomewide significance in the Australian/Dutch meta-analysis, but a gene network diagram based on the top-results revealed overrepre-sentation of genes coding for ion-channels and cell adhesion molecules. Further studies will be requirec before the detailed causes of comorbidity between AC and ND are understood.
Purpose: The organ at risk in prostate radiotherapy is the anterior rectal wall . This pilot study was conducted to quantify the inter-observer variability of rectal contouring in conformal prostate radiotherapy planning using four contouring methods and to determine a standard rectal contouring definition.
Methods and materials: Ten patients with T1/T2 disease and six clinical oncologists were recruited. Two cross-sectional and two length limits generated four rectal volumes. Each clinician contoured the four volumes for each patient and the dose–volume histograms (DVHs) were analysed. The percentage rectal volume receiving 20%, 50%, 80%, 90% and 95% of the total delivered dose and the mean and median rectal doses were calculated. Data were presented as mean ± 2 standard deviations.
Results: The Sh Rec method (contouring the rectum including its contents extending from 2 cm above the upper limit of the prostate to 2 cm below the prostatic apex) was the least variable in the 80%, 90% and 95% percentage ranges. The mean difference in Sh Rec-contoured volume was 18.7 cm3 (± 22.3 cm3).
Conclusions: The Sh Rec-contouring method showed the least inter-observer variability. The results are informative and will help define a standard rectal contouring method.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a method to allocate treatment effects when patients switch medication frequently in longitudinal observational studies and apply the approach to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatments in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) study.
Methods: Data were collected on patients at entry to the SOHO study at 3, 6, and 12 months. The 12-month follow-up period was considered as three epochs: 0–3 months, 3–6 months, and 6–12 months. Patients who switched treatment at 3 months had their new treatment considered as a new baseline observation, as these two 3-month observations provide two sets of information on the cost-effectiveness of a drug in the first 3 months after initiation. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for baseline covariates. The model allowed for flexible functional forms, and the cost data were modeled using an exponential mean function. Bootstrapping assessed the uncertainty of the estimated parameters and incremental cost-effectiveness analysis decision rule.
Results and Conclusions: We show the feasibility of the epoch analysis approach using data from the SOHO study comparing two antipsychotics. Estimates for the incremental cost and effectiveness per epoch over the full 12-month period are presented. Using the estimates of 200 bootstrap samples, we demonstrate how one drug is cost-effective compared with another.
Adisappointing feature of conventional methods for detecting association between DNA variation and a phenotype of interest is that they tell us little about the hidden pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the functional variant that is actually responsible for the association. This limitation applies to case-control studies and also to the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and other family-based association methods. Here we present a fresh perspective on genetic association based on two novel concepts called ‘LD squares’ and ‘equi- risk alleles’. These describe and characterize the different patterns of gametic LD which underlie genetic association. These concepts lead to a general principle – the Equi-Risk Allele Segregation Principle – which captures the way in which underlying LD patterns affect the transmission patterns of genetic variants associated with a phenotype. This provides a basis for distinguishing the hidden LD patterns and might help to locate the functional variants responsible for the association.
The aim of this study was to determine whether identity-by-descent (IBD) information for affected sib pairs (ASPs) can be used to select a sample of cases for a genetic case-control study which will provide more power for detecting association with loci in a known linkage region. By modeling the expected frequency of the disease allele in ASPs showing IBD sharing of 0, 1, or 2 alleles, and considering additive, recessive, and dominant disease models, we show that cases selected from IBD 2 families are best for this purpose, followed by those selected from IBD 1 families; least useful are cases selected from IBD 0 families.