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Diversification of the medical and cardiothoracic surgical workforce represents an ongoing need. A congenital cardiac surgery shadowing programme for undergraduate students was implemented at the University of Florida Congenital Heart Center.
Students shadowing in the Congenital Heart Center from 17 December 2020 through 20 July 2021 were sent a survey through Qualtrics to evaluate the impact of their shadowing experience. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the personal relationship(s) of the students to physicians prior to shadowing, how the presence or absence of physicians in the family of a given student related to the exposure of the student to a medical setting prior to shadowing, and the interest of the students in medicine and cardiothoracic surgery prior to and after the shadowing experience. Survey responses included “Yes/No” questions, scaled responses using a Likert scale, selection lists, and free text responses. When applicable, t-tests were utilised to assess differences between student groups.
Of the 37 students who shadowed during the study period, 26 (70%) responded. Most students were female (58%, n = 15), and the mean age was 20.9 ± 2.4 years. Students spent a mean duration of 95 ± 138 hours shadowing providers as part of the shadowing programme. Likert scale ratings of interest in the professions of medicine, surgery, and cardiothoracic surgery all increased after the shadowing experience (p < 0.01). Students with a family member in medicine had more clinical exposure prior to the shadowing programme (p < 0.01).
A surgical shadowing programme at a Congenital Heart Center may have an important formative impact on the views of undergraduate students regarding potential careers in surgery and medicine. Additionally, students without family members in medicine tend to have less prior exposure to medicine and could likely benefit more from this type of shadowing programme.
From 2014 to 2020, we compiled radiocarbon ages from the lower 48 states, creating a database of more than 100,000 archaeological, geological, and paleontological ages that will be freely available to researchers through the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database. Here, we discuss the process used to compile ages, general characteristics of the database, and lessons learned from this exercise in “big data” compilation.
Spatially and temporally unpredictable rainfall patterns presented food production challenges to small-scale agricultural communities, requiring multiple risk-mitigating strategies to increase food security. Although site-based investigations of the relationship between climate and agricultural production offer insights into how individual communities may have created long-term adaptations to manage risk, the inherent spatial variability of climate-driven risk makes a landscape-scale perspective valuable. In this article, we model risk by evaluating how the spatial structure of ancient climate conditions may have affected the reliability of three major strategies used to reduce risk: drawing upon social networks in time of need, hunting and gathering of wild resources, and storing surplus food. We then explore how climate-driven changes to this reliability may relate to archaeologically observed social transformations. We demonstrate the utility of this methodology by comparing the Salinas and Cibola regions in the prehispanic U.S. Southwest to understand the complex relationship among climate-driven threats to food security, risk-mitigation strategies, and social transformations. Our results suggest key differences in how communities buffered against risk in the Cibola and Salinas study regions, with the structure of precipitation influencing the range of strategies to which communities had access through time.
What Australian psychologists currently learn about specific learning disorders (SLDs) through postgraduate-level training is not clear. Accordingly, the current Australia-wide study analysed 800 postgraduate psychology unit handbook entries to identify which courses teach about SLD and what they teach in this area. Only 2.38% of the identified units explicitly indicated SLD-related content, with 0.38% solely dedicated to SLD content. Descriptive analyses revealed differences in labels used for SLD. Thematic analyses identified five areas of knowledge and skills across SLD units including assessment, intervention, theory and empirical evidence, developmental and cultural awareness and sensitivity, and interpersonal communication. The present findings can inform future refinements to university-level psychology programs across Australia by highlighting the gaps and needs in psychology training.
Over the last decade, archaeologists have turned to large radiocarbon (14C) data sets to infer prehistoric population size and change. An outstanding question concerns just how direct of an estimate 14C dates are for human populations. In this paper we propose that 14C dates are a better estimate of energy consumption, rather than an unmediated, proportional estimate of population size. We use a parametric model to describe the relationship between population size, economic complexity and energy consumption in human societies, and then parametrize the model using data from modern contexts. Our results suggest that energy consumption scales sub-linearly with population size, which means that the analysis of a large 14C time-series has the potential to misestimate rates of population change and absolute population size. Energy consumption is also an exponential function of economic complexity. Thus, the 14C record could change semi-independent of population as complexity grows or declines. Scaling models are an important tool for stimulating future research to tease apart the different effects of population and social complexity on energy consumption, and explain variation in the forms of 14C date time-series in different regions.
Diversity is generally valued, although it sometimes contributes to
difficult social situations, as is recognized in recent social science
literature. Archaeology can provide insights into how diverse social
situations play out over the long term. There are many kinds of diversities,
and we propose representational diversity as a distinct category.
Representational diversity specifically concerns how and whether differences
are marked or masked materially. We investigate several archaeological
sequences in the U.S. Southwest. Each began with the coming together of
populations that created situations of unprecedented social diversity; some
resulted in conflict, others in long-term stability. We trace how
representational diversity changed through these sequences. Specifically, we
review the transregional Kayenta migration to the southern Southwest and
focus empirical analyses on regional processes in the Cibola region and on
painted ceramics. Results show that, initially, representational diversity
increased above and beyond that caused by the combination of previously
separate traditions as people marked their differences. Subsequently, in
some instances, the diversity was replaced by widespread homogeneity as the
differences were masked and mitigated. Although the social causes and
effects of diversity are many and varied, long-term stability and
persistence is associated with tolerance of a range of diversities.
We have established a multisite, international database of 3500 individuals diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS). The male:female ratio is 4.3:1 for the total sample, with wide variation among sites; the male excess occurs at every site. Anger control problems, sleep difficulties, coprolalia, and self-injurious behavior only reach impressive levels in individuals with comorbidity. Anger control problems are strongly correlated with comorbidity, regardless of site, region, or whether assessed by neurologists or psychiatrists. The mean age at onset of tics is 6.4 years. At all ages, about 12% of individuals with TS have no reported comorbidity. The most common reported comorbidity is attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Males are more likely to have comorbid disorders than females. The earlier the age at onset, the greater the likelihood of a positive family history of tics. An understanding of the factors producing these and other variations might assist in better subtyping of TS. Because behavioral problems are associated with comorbidity, their presence should dictate a high index of suspicion of the latter, whose treatment may be at least as important as tic reduction. The established database can be used as the entry point for further research when large samples are studied and generalizability of results is important.
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