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Data from a national survey of 348 U.S. sports field managers were used to examine the effects of participation in Cooperative Extension events on the adoption of turfgrass weed management practices. Of the respondents, 94% attended at least one event in the previous three years. Of this 94%, 97% reported adopting at least one practice as a result of knowledge gained at an Extension turfgrass event. Half of the respondents adopted four or more practices; a third adopted five or more practices. Non-chemical, cultural practices were the most-adopted practices (65% of respondents). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine factors explaining practice adoption and Extension event attendance. Compared to attending one event, attending three events increased total adoption by an average of one practice. Attending four or more events increased total adoption by two practices. Attending four or more events (compared to one event) increased the odds of adopting six individual practices by 3- to 6-fold, depending on the practice. This suggests practice adoption could be enhanced by encouraging repeat attendance among past Extension event attendees. Manager experience was a statistically significant predictor of the number of Extension events attended, but a poor direct predictor of practice adoption. Experience does not appear to increase adoption directly, but indirectly, via its impact on Extension event attendance. In addition to questions about weed management generally, the survey asked questions about annual bluegrass management, specifically. Respondents were asked to rank seven sources of information for their helpfulness in managing annual bluegrass. There was no single dominant information source, but Extension was ranked as the most helpful more than any other source (by 22% of the respondents) and was ranked among the top three by 53%, closely behind field representative/local distributor sources at 54%.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
Interest in the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks has increased the need for information in this rapidly developing sector of agriculture. Many fast-growing, large-statured perennial grasses have been selected because of their high biomass production potential, competitive nature, and ability to tolerate marginal growing conditions. However, weed pressure in the establishment phase can be detrimental to crop yield. Weed control is one of the most costly and resource-intensive aspects of bioenergy crop establishment. Unfortunately, little information exists on practical weed management techniques for the majority of these new crops. The tolerance of switchgrass, big bluestem, reed canarygrass, sorghum, giant reed, eulaliagrass, and giant miscanthus (sterile and seeded) to 22 PRE and 22 POST herbicides were evaluated. Plants were grown in the greenhouse and evaluated for injury, height, and aboveground biomass after 5 or 7 wk for PRE and POST applications, respectively. PRE and POST application of 2,4-D, bentazon, bromoxynil, carfentrazone, dicamba, halosulfuron, and topramezone did not significantly injure any species. Giant miscanthus was more tolerant to PRE herbicides when established from rhizomes compared with seed establishment. Supporting previous research, all eulaliagrass and switchgrass cultivars demonstrated comparable tolerance to PRE application of all 22 herbicides. With the information gained in this study a suite of herbicides may have potential for use in bioenergy crops; however, they should be tested on larger-scale field trials over multiple growing seasons to validate initial findings.
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