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Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
To examine the relationship between dietary cruciferous vegetable intake and selected tumour biomarkers for histone acetylation (H3K9ac, H3K18ac, HDAC3 and HDAC6), proliferation (Ki-67) and cell-cycle regulation (p21) from breast tissue.
The study used baseline data of women recruited to participate in a clinical trial of sulforaphane supplement. Dietary cruciferous vegetable intake was collected through a validated Arizona Cruciferous Vegetable Intake Questionnaire. Breast tissue was obtained from biopsy samples. Spearman correlations were calculated between intake of specific cruciferous vegetables and biomarkers. Tissue biomarkers were log2-transformed to obtain approximate normality. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and biomarkers adjusting for age and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. False discovery rate (FDR) was used to account for multiple comparisons.
Clinical trial baseline.
Fifty-four women who had abnormal mammogram findings and were scheduled for breast biopsy.
Mean intake of total cruciferous vegetables from all food sources was 81·7 (sd 57·3) g/d. Mean urinary total sulforaphane metabolites was 0·08 (sd 0·07) µm/mm creatinine. Total cruciferous vegetable intake was inversely associated with Ki-67 protein expression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) tissue (β=−0·004; se=0·001; FDR q value=0·03), but not in benign or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissue. No association was found for other biomarkers measured (HDAC3, HDAC6, H3K9, H3K18 and p21) in all tissues examined (benign, DCIS and IDC).
The present study sought to provide additional evidence for the potential role of sulforaphane in histone acetylation and cell proliferation. Here, we report that total cruciferous vegetable intake is associated with decreased cell proliferation in breast DCIS tissue.
To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intakes as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in Chinese women, using three classification schemes.
Intakes were calculated using an interviewer-administered FFQ. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood samples collected within 1 week of questionnaire completion.
Participants (n 2031) comprised women who had participated in a case–control study of diet and breast-related diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n 266 064)
Fruit intake was significantly (P < 0·05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intakes and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview.
These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped leads to different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating the associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.
The food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) can be an efficient tool to evaluate dietary intake in large, population-based studies, especially for specific foods. The objective of this study was to validate the assessment of soy and isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) intakes, measured by an FFQ, by comparing intakes with serum isoflavone concentrations.
Design and setting:
Soy and isoflavone intakes and serum isoflavone concentrations were determined as part of a case–control study of dietary factors and risks of benign breast disease and breast cancer. The FFQ, administered during an in-person interview, included six soy-specific line items. Blood was drawn within one week of FFQ completion.
In total, 1823 women living in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
In this population, soybean milk, fresh bean curd and other bean foods were eaten once per week, and fermented bean curd, fried bean curd puff and soybeans were eaten less than once per week. A significant linear trend (P > 0.01) in serum isoflavone concentrations across increasing categories of soy and isoflavone intakes was observed, indicating that soy and isoflavone intakes, measured by the FFQ, well distinguished serum isoflavone concentrations. Linear trends were also observed in both case and control groups in stratified analyses, suggesting little differential bias by case–control status.
The results suggest that the FFQ provides a useful marker of soy food consumption and isoflavone exposure in this population.
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