Activated carbon fiber/carbon aerogel (ACF/CA) composites were fabricated by gelling a mixture of ACF and resorcinol and furfural, followed by supercritical drying of the mixture in isopropanol. The product then went through carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere. The fabrication conditions, such as the mass content of R–F, the content of the ACF added, and the gelation temperature, were explored. The textures and pore structures of the ACF/CA composites thus obtained were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface area analyzer. The mechanical properties of the samples were assessed primarily through compressive tests. The experimental results indicated that the added ACF disperses uniformly in the resulting ACF/CA composites. The carbon matrix of the ACF/CA composites also consisted of interconnected carbon nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 20 to 30 nm. The ACFs can reinforce the related carbon aerogels when they originally have low mass density and are weak in mechanical strength. When large amounts of ACF were added to the composites, the micropore area and micropore volume of the composites increased, but their external surface area decreased. The mesopore volumes and the related diameters and mesopore size distributions of the ACF/CA composites were mainly affected by the mass density of the composites. The micropore sizes of all the composites were sharply concentrated at about 0.5 nm.