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Brown crab contributes to small-scale fisheries in the Isle of Man and landings (495 t) were worth in excess of £0.5 million in 2012. The present study sought to fill evidence gaps needed to improve the scientific understanding of this fishery. Observer data were collected to examine the spatial and temporal variations in the size distribution and sex ratio of crabs around the Isle of Man. This study also aimed to evaluate the catch characteristics of brown crab using logbook data (2007–2012), observer data (2012–2013) and questionnaire survey data (2013). The sex ratio is highly variable in different areas across seasons and was perhaps indicative of migration patterns in relation to mating. This change was most notable with a strong increase in the proportion of females to the south and west of the Isle of Man in the autumn months. The depth and pot volume were important factors that influenced the catch per unit effort (CPUE). Future survey designs would need to ensure adequate spatial coverage of the east and west coast of the Isle of Man together with a seasonal sampling regime that captures the spatial change in the distribution and abundance of male and female crabs.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
Firms are continually trying to identify innovation sources in order to improve organizational performance, but the identification of such origins is a complex and poorly understood issue, particularly as far as nonprofit firms are concerned. The social and cooperative agrifood arrangement has become one of the main and newest types of nonprofit organization in China since the implementation of the law related to specialized cooperatives, on July 1, 2007. In this research, a conceptual model is proposed to show that the characteristics of innovative sources can determine a firm’s absorptive capacity, which in turn can impact its performance. Therefore, absorptive capacity can be expected to enable the mediation of the relationships of innovative sources with the performance of firms. By means of theoretical analysis and practical investigation, this paper provides an assessment of the use of innovation sources and finds critical factors that may foster competitive and sustainable advantages.
This article considers the extent to which the legal framework for making land use decisions in Singapore allows for public participation. It examines the issue from two angles: the creation and preservation of the built environment, and the transient use of public space. The first angle is discussed primarily from a heritage law viewpoint, focusing on planning law, compulsory acquisition law, and the legal regime for creating national monuments. As for the second angle, the article looks at how the use of common spaces for assemblies and processions is regulated. The foregoing are examined in the context of Edward Soja’s assertion in Seeking Spatial Justice (2010) that the equitable distribution of resources, services, and access in cities is an important right.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
In this article, I explain the establishment of Crown Colony government within the racially diverse colonies of the British Empire through an examination of the reconstitution of the Straits Settlements as a Crown Colony in 1867. My central argument is that the reconstitution of the Straits Settlements as a Crown Colony rested on colonial officials and subjects’ shared understandings of the fragmented and unstable character of racially diverse societies. Such understandings were analogous to J.S. Furnivall’s concept of “plural society” and were generated by the negative images of “native” populations and the precarity of colonial rule. Despite the reception of the common law and its institutions in the colony, these beliefs ultimately justified colonial officials’ repudiation of liberal principles of government and law despite intransigent protests by a minority of officials and subjects. In the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements, this meant the institutionalization of a constitutional framework and laws that granted the Governor authoritarian powers over the legislature, judiciary, and society to maintain the social order.
The effectiveness of practice bundles on reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been questioned.
To implement a comprehensive program that included a real-time bundle compliance dashboard to improve compliance and reduce ventilator-associated complications.
Before-and-after quasi-experimental study with interrupted time-series analysis.
Academic medical center.
In 2007 a comprehensive institutional ventilator bundle program was developed. To assess bundle compliance and stimulate instant course correction of noncompliant parameters, a real-time computerized dashboard was developed. Program impact in 6 adult intensive care units (ICUs) was assessed. Bundle compliance was noted as an overall cumulative bundle adherence assessment, reflecting the percentage of time all elements were concurrently in compliance for all patients.
The VAP rate in all ICUs combined decreased from 19.5 to 9.2 VAPs per 1,000 ventilator-days following program implementation (P<.001). Bundle compliance significantly increased (Z100 score of 23% in August 2007 to 83% in June 2011 [P<.001]). The implementation resulted in a significant monthly decrease in the overall ICU VAP rate of 3.28/1,000 ventilator-days (95% CI, 2.64–3.92/1,000 ventilator-days). Following the intervention, the VAP rate decreased significantly at a rate of 0.20/1,000 ventilator-days per month (95% CI, 0.14–0.30/1,000 ventilator-days per month). Among all adult ICUs combined, improved bundle compliance was moderately correlated with monthly VAP rate reductions (Pearson correlation coefficient, −0.32).
A prevention program using a real-time bundle adherence dashboard was associated with significant sustained decreases in VAP rates and an increase in bundle compliance among adult ICU patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1261–1267
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Singapore is not well known for its archaeological heritage. In fact, chance finds in the early twentieth century and systematic archaeological excavations since the 1980s conducted at sites around the Singapore River have unearthed artifacts shedding light on the island's early history. In addition, the value of archaeology for a deeper knowledge of Singapore's British colonial past is increasingly being recognized. Nonetheless, Singapore law provides only a rudimentary framework to facilitate archaeological investigations and protect cultural artifacts. This article considers how the National Heritage Board Act (Cap. 196A, 1994 Rev. Ed.), the Planning Act (Cap. 232, 1998 Rev. Ed.), and the recent Preservation of Monuments Board Act 2009 (No. 16 of 2009, now Cap. 239, 2011 Rev. Ed.) may be strengthened in this regard.
We have carried out a series of experiments aimed at producing arrays of mesas on both Si(001) and Si(111) which are free from atomic steps. These are of interest in CMOS technology and for quantum well structures. They also provide interesting substrates for fundamental surface science experiments. In previous work we have created atomically flat regions surrounded by ridges through an evaporation method. The present work ‘inverts’ the previous process by using a pattern of trenches to define the mesas and then depositing Si to grow the atomic steps off the edges. The mesas are created on Si wafers, which are ~1° from the (111) and (001) plane by lithography and reactive ion etching. Step-free mesas were formed on Si(111) but not yet on Si(001). Both the evaporation and this new growth technique rely on step flow to move the steps to the edges of the flat areas. Although the evaporation method is simpler, an advantage of the growth technique is that it can be carried out at lower temperature. The maximum size of mesa that can be made free of atomic steps depends on the combination of temperature and deposition rate. On very large step-free terraces nucleation of islands and concentric arrays of mono-atomic steps are observed; these correspond to the vacancy pits observed with the evaporation method.
The need for alternative gate dielectrics to replace conventional SiO2 is increasing to facilitate further CMOS scaling. One of the most promising materials for use as an alternative gate dielectric is Zr silicate due to its thermodynamic stability on Si and its good interface quality with Si. In this study, ultra-thin Zr silicate films (45 – 60 Å thick) with different Zr compositions have been deposited on Si using magnetron reactive co-sputtering. The Zr composition was kept below the stoichiometric value of about 16% to prevent precipitation of ZrO2and to have Si rich films for better interface quality. Films were rapid thermal annealed in N2 ambient up to 9000C and Pt was used as the gate electrode. Electrical characterization of these films was done using HP 4156 and HP 4194 parameter analyzers. Based on these studies, we demonstrate Zr silicate films with equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of less than 14 Å with gate leakage significantly lower thanSiO2 of similar thickness and hysteresis of < 20mV ( in a sweep from –3 to 3 V). The films exhibit good thermal stability on Si even after 900 0C annealing as shown by a minimal increase in EOT with annealing. TEM and XPS analyses show high quality Zr silicate films that remain stable and amorphous even at 900 0C.
In this paper we describe observations on the stability of extremely large Si(001) and (111) terraces that are formed by a technique described previously. Following annealing at high temperature and quenching, a series of concentric pits of monoatomic depth are observed with spacing between successive pits of the order of several microns; pits do not form on (111) until the terraces get extremely large. The occurrence of small islands or small pits on the terraces of quenched samples gives information on the majority point defect at the annealing temperature. On (001) samples that are slowly cooled from the annealing temperature, it is observed that pairs of atomic steps have formed on the large terrace; we believe that these result from the tendency of the surface to minimize the strain energy associated with the (2 × 1) reconstruction.
GaAs epitaxial layers grown on Si substrates up to 4 inches in diameter by OMCVD are characterized with respect to the materials parameters important for their application for device and circuit manufacturing. The layers are characterized using commercial flatness and surface quality measurement instrumentation, x-ray diffraction, Schottky diode
characteristics, and photoluminescence. The 4-inch diameter GaAs epilayers are a singleoriented phase and are of comparable quality to GaAs epilayers grown on smaller diameter Si substrates.
The growth of high-quality single crystal GaAs on Si wafers up to six inches in diameter by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) is reported. These wafers have specular surfaces, excellent thickness uniformity, and are shown to have properties comparable to those of smaller diameter GaAs on Si wafers. The mechanical and electrical properties of the six inch GaAs on Si wafers are shown to be suitable for GaAs device fabrication.
Growth technique dependent factors are compared for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) that are related to the GaAs on Si epitaxy. The comparison, both for growth processes and as-grown material characteristics, indicates that material qualities of these layers provided by the two growth techniques are comparable in many aspects, but differ in morphological texture, residual stress, and occasionally Schottky barrier height. These issues are discussed further with our recent OMCVD results in order to ensure the OMCVD advantages for GaAs on Si wafer engineering, which are referred as an easy scale-up and a large throughput.