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Eighteen new chapters have been added to the 2000 edition of this valuable Handbook, which serves as a core text for students and experienced professionals who are interested in the health and well being of young children. It serves as a comprehensive reference for graduate students, advanced trainees, service providers, and policy makers in such diverse fields as child care, early childhood education, child health, and early intervention programs for children with developmental disabilities and children in high risk environments. This book will be of interest to a broad range of disciplines including psychology, child development, early childhood education, social work, pediatrics, nursing, child psychiatry, physical and occupational therapy, speech and language pathology, and social policy. A scholarly overview of the underlying knowledge base and practice of early childhood intervention, it is unique in its balance between breadth and depth and its integration of the multiple dimensions of the field.
If the earlier edition of the handbook represented the coming of age of the field of early childhood intervention, the presentation of this edition surely marks the beginning of its maturity. As developmental psychologists know well, each stage of development brings characteristic triumphs and challenges, with occasional setbacks and recurrences of the previous stage's struggles, not entirely abandoned as the young move forward into new stages along their growth trajectory. Our young field is no exception. A decade later, we are stronger, wiser, and capable of more complex tasks and deeper understanding than we were, yet old difficulties reassert themselves and continue to beset us, and there is still much to learn. Just as social expectations increase as the individual reaches maturity, the responsibilities of the field of early intervention have been accruing apace. We know more now; we have a great deal to do.
Throughout the 1990s, we have witnessed great breakthroughs in the field of brain development. Recent brain research has demonstrated with unprecedented certainty the importance of early experience in influencing the actual growth and development of neural pathways in the individual (Kotulak, 1996). During the years from 3 to 10, the brain is more densely “wired” than at any other time in the child's life. This means that there is literally a profusion of synapses connecting brain cells that are present in the growing child.
This exploratory study compares the prevalence of personality disorders and traits in people over and under 55 years of age. The comorbidity between personality and other psychiatric disorders is also examined.
Psychiatrists examined 810 subjects in a two-stage community survey. The semi-structured Standardized Psychiatric Examination was used to diagnose all DSM-III personality disorders and other psychiatric disorders.
The older subjects were significantly less likely than the younger subjects to have any personality disorder (6.6% v. 10.5%; relative odds = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.25–0.70, P<0.001). Antisocial and histrionic personality disorders were much less prevalent in the older than younger subjects (P < 0.05). The older subjects also had significantly fewer maladaptive personality traits (x2 = 88.9, d.f. = 3, P < 0.001). The patterns of comorbidity between personality disorders and other psychiatric disorders were different in the two age groups.
It is important to evaluate personality in patients of all ages. While some older patients no longer meet criteria for personality disorder, maladaptive traits may become evident during times of stress.
It is difficult to read both the theoretical literature in political science on the causes of war and historians' case studies of the origins of particular wars without being struck by the difference in their respective evaluations of the importance of domestic political factors. Whereas historians devote considerable attention to these variables, most political scientists minimize their importance. Domestic political variables are not included in any of the leading theories of the causes of war; instead, they appear only in a number of isolated hypotheses and in some empirical studies that are generally atheoretical and noncumulative. This gap is troubling and suggests that political scientists and historians who study war have learned little from each other. A greater recognition of the role of domestic factors by political scientists would increase the explanatory power of their theories and provide more useful conceptual frameworks for the historical analysis of individual wars.
This study takes a first step toward bridging this gap by examining some of the disparate theoretical literature on domestic politics and war. It examines the relationship between national attributes and war behavior, the relative likelihood of democratic and non-democratic regimes going to war, Marxist and liberal theories regarding the impact of economic structure, the influence of nationalism and public opinion, and the scapegoat hypothesis. First, however, this article takes a closer look at the different treatment of domestic sources of war by political scientists and historians.