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Droplets can be levitated by their own vapour when placed onto a superheated plate (the Leidenfrost effect). It is less known that the Leidenfrost effect can likewise be observed over a liquid pool (superheated with respect to the drop), which is the study case here. Emphasis is placed on an asymptotic analysis in the limit of small evaporation numbers, which indeed proves to be a realistic one for millimetric-sized drops (i.e. where the radius of the drop is of the order of the capillary length). The global shapes are found to resemble ‘superhydrophobic drops’ that follow from the equilibrium between capillarity and gravity. However, the morphology of the thin vapour layer between the drop and the pool is very different from that of classical Leidenfrost drops over a flat rigid substrate, and exhibits different scaling laws. We determine analytical expressions for the vapour thickness as a function of temperature and material properties, which are confirmed by numerical solutions. Surprisingly, we show that deformability of the pool suppresses the chimney instability of Leidenfrost drops.
We study air entrainment by a solid plate plunging into a viscous liquid, theoretically and numerically. At dimensionless speeds
of order unity, a near-cusp forms due to the presence of a moving contact line. The radius of curvature of the cusp’s tip scales with the slip length multiplied by an exponential of
. The pressure from the air flow drawn inside the cusp leads to a bifurcation, at which air is entrained, i.e. there is ‘wetting failure’. We develop an analytical theory of the threshold to air entrainment, which predicts the critical capillary number to depend logarithmically on the viscosity ratio, with corrections coming from the slip in the gas phase.
When a free-falling liquid droplet is hit by a laser it experiences a strong ablation-driven pressure pulse. Here we study the resulting droplet deformation in the regime where the ablation pressure duration is short, i.e. comparable to the time scale on which pressure waves travel through the droplet. To this end, an acoustic analytic model for the pressure, pressure impulse and velocity fields inside the droplet is developed in the limit of small density fluctuations. This model is used to examine how the droplet deformation depends on the pressure pulse duration while the total momentum to the droplet is kept constant. Within the limits of this analytic model, we demonstrate that when the total momentum transferred to the droplet is small the droplet shape evolution is indistinguishable from an incompressible droplet deformation. However, when the momentum transfer is increased the droplet response is strongly affected by the pulse duration. In this later regime, compressed flow regimes alter the droplet shape evolution considerably.
Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics and nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubricating fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examples, namely Kelvin–Voigt, standard linear and power law rheology. It is shown how the solid viscoelasticity affects the lubrication process when the time scale of loading becomes comparable to the rheological time scale. We derive asymptotic relations between the lift force and the sliding velocity, which give scaling laws that inherit a signature of the rheology. In all cases the lift is found to decrease with respect to purely elastic systems.
A free falling, absorbing liquid drop hit by a nanosecond laser pulse experiences a strong recoil pressure kick. As a consequence, the drop propels forward and deforms into a thin sheet which eventually fragments. We study how the drop deformation depends on the pulse shape and drop properties. We first derive the velocity field inside the drop on the time scale of the pressure pulse, when the drop is still spherical. This yields the kinetic energy partition inside the drop, which precisely measures the deformation rate with respect to the propulsion rate, before surface tension comes into play. On the time scale where surface tension is important, the drop has evolved into a thin sheet. Its expansion dynamics is described with a slender-slope model, which uses the impulsive energy partition as an initial condition. Completed with boundary integral simulations, this two-stage model explains the entire drop dynamics and its dependence on the pulse shape: for a given propulsion, a tightly focused pulse results in a thin curved sheet which maximizes the lateral expansion, while a uniform illumination yields a smaller expansion but a flat symmetric sheet, in good agreement with experimental observations.
A train of high-speed microdrops impacting on a liquid pool can create a very deep and narrow cavity, reaching depths more than 1000 times the size of the individual drops. The impact of such a droplet train is studied numerically using boundary integral simulations. In these simulations, we solve the potential flow in the pool and in the impacting drops, taking into account the influence of liquid inertia, gravity and surface tension. We show that for microdrops the cavity shape and maximum depth primarily depend on the balance of inertia and surface tension and discuss how these are influenced by the spacing between the drops in the train. Finally, we derive simple scaling laws for the cavity depth and width.
When a millimetre-sized liquid drop approaches a deep liquid pool, both the interface of the drop and the pool deform before the drop touches the pool. The build-up of air pressure prior to coalescence is responsible for this deformation. Due to this deformation, air can be entrained at the bottom of the drop during the impact. We quantify the amount of entrained air numerically, using the boundary integral method for potential flow for the drop and the pool, coupled to viscous lubrication theory for the air film that has to be squeezed out during impact. We compare our results with various experimental data and find excellent agreement for the amount of air that is entrapped during impact onto a pool. Next, the impact of a rigid sphere onto a pool is numerically investigated and the air that is entrapped in this case also matches with available experimental data. In both cases of drop and sphere impact onto a pool the numerical air bubble volume
is found to be in agreement with the theoretical scaling
is the Stokes number. This is the same scaling as has been found for drop impact onto a solid surface in previous research. This implies a universal mechanism for air entrainment for these different impact scenarios, which has been suggested in recent experimental work, but is now further elucidated with numerical results.
A tiny air bubble can be entrapped at the bottom of a solid sphere that impacts onto a liquid pool. The bubble forms due to the deformation of the liquid surface by a local pressure buildup inside the surrounding gas, as also observed during the impact of a liquid drop on a solid wall. Here, we perform a perturbation analysis to quantitatively predict the initial deformations of the free surface of a liquid pool as it is approached by a solid sphere. We study the natural limits where the gas can be treated as a viscous fluid (Stokes flow) or as an inviscid fluid (potential flow). For both cases we derive the spatiotemporal evolution of the pool surface, and recover some of the recently proposed scaling laws for bubble entrapment. On inserting typical experimental values for the impact parameters, we find that the bubble volume is mainly determined by the effect of gas viscosity.
The evaporation of sessile drops in quiescent air is usually governed by vapour diffusion. For contact angles below , the evaporative flux from the droplet tends to diverge in the vicinity of the contact line. Therefore, the description of the flow inside an evaporating drop has remained a challenge. Here, we focus on the asymptotic behaviour near the pinned contact line, by analytically solving the Stokes equations in a wedge geometry of arbitrary contact angle. The flow field is described by similarity solutions, with exponents that match the singular boundary condition due to evaporation. We demonstrate that there are three contributions to the flow in a wedge: the evaporative flux, the downward motion of the liquid–air interface and the eigenmode solution which fulfils the homogeneous boundary conditions. Below a critical contact angle of , the evaporative flux solution will dominate, while above this angle the eigenmode solution dominates. We demonstrate that for small contact angles, the velocity field is very accurately described by the lubrication approximation. For larger contact angles, the flow separates into regions where the flow is reversing towards the drop centre.
The dynamics of receding contact lines is investigated experimentally through controlled perturbations of a meniscus in a dip-coating experiment. We first describe stationary menisci and their breakdown at the coating transition. Above this transition where liquid is deposited, it is found that the dynamics of the interface can be interpreted as a quasi-steady succession of stationary states. This provides the first experimental access to the entire bifurcation diagram of dynamical wetting, confirming the hydrodynamic theory developed in Part 1. In contrast to quasi-static theories based on a dynamic contact angle, we demonstrate that the transition strongly depends on the large-scale flow geometry. We then establish the dispersion relation for large wavenumbers, for which we find a decay rate σ proportional to wavenumber |q|. The speed dependence of σ is described well by hydrodynamic theory, in particular the absence of diverging time scales at the critical point. Finally, we highlight some open problems related to contact angle hysteresis that lead beyond the current description.
The relaxation of a dewetting contact line is investigated theoretically in the so-called ‘Landau–Levich’ geometry in which a vertical solid plate is withdrawn from a bath of partially wetting liquid. The study is performed in the framework of lubrication theory, in which the hydrodynamics is resolved at all length scales (from molecular to macroscopic). We investigate the bifurcation diagram for unperturbed contact lines, which turns out to be more complex than expected from simplified ‘quasi-static’ theories based upon an apparent contact angle. Linear stability analysis reveals that below the critical capillary number of entrainment, Cac, the contact line is linearly stable at all wavenumbers. Away from the critical point, the dispersion relation has an asymptotic behaviour σ∝|q| and compares well to a quasi-static approach. Approaching Cac, however, a different mechanism takes over and the dispersion evolves from ∼|q| to the more common ∼q2. These findings imply that contact lines cannot be described using a universal relation between speed and apparent contact angle, but viscous effects have to be treated explicitly.
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