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For over 120 years, the shell middens of western Scotland and the series of open-air sites on Oronsay have been the focus of debate in European Mesolithic studies. This paper challenges the significance of Oronsay in light of results from the geophysical survey and test-excavation of a new limpet and periwinkle shell midden dated to the late 5th or start of the 4th millennium cal bc at Port Lobh, Colonsay that offers fresh evidence to re-evaluate critically the role of Oronsay and coastal resources in island settlement models ahead of the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. Test excavations recovered a marine molluscan assemblage dominated by limpet and periwinkle shells together with crab, sea urchin, a fishbone assemblage composed mainly of Gadidae, some identifiable bird and mammal bone, carbonised macroplant remains, and pumice as well as a bipolar lithic assemblage and coarse stone implements. Novel seasonality studies of saithe otolith thin-sections suggest wintertime tidal fishing practices. At least two activity events may be discerned, dating from the late 5th millennium cal bc. The midden could represent a small number of rapidly deposited assemblages or maybe the result of stocastic events within a more extended timeframe. We argue that alternative research questions are needed to advance long-standing debates about seasonal inter-island mobility versus island sedentism that look beyond Oronsay to better understand later Mesolithic occupation patterns and the formation and date of Oronsay middens. We propose alternative methodological strategies to aid identification of contemporaneous sites using geophysical techniques and lithic technological signatures.
Information about the ice volume stored in glaciers is of high importance for sustainable water management in many arid regions of Central Asia. Several methods to estimate the ice volume exist. However, none of them take the specific characteristics of flat terminus debris-covered glaciers into account. We present a method for deriving spatially-distributed ice thickness for debris-covered dendritic glaciers, which are common not only in Central Tien Shan but also in several other mountain ranges in High Asia. The method relies on automatically generated branch lines, observed surface velocities and surface topographic parameters as basic input. Branch lines were generated using Thiessen polygons and Dijkstra's path algorithm. Ice thicknesses for four debris-covered glaciers – South Inylchek, Kaindy, Tomur and Koxkar glaciers – have been estimated along the branch line network solving the equation of laminar flow. For Koxkar and South Inylchek glaciers, respectively, maximum thicknesses of ~250 and 380 m were estimated. These results differ by ~50 m compared with GPR measurements with an uncertainty for the debris-covered parts of ~40%. Based on geodetic mass balances, we estimate that the investigated glaciers lost between 6 and 28% of their volume from 1975 to the early 2000s.
Anyone over the age of 60 would be foolhardy not to be fearful of dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular, because it is very common. About one-third of people in the developed world have a family member or friend who has succumbed to one form or another of dementia, and these numbers are expected to soar thanks to longer lifespans. What makes dementia so horrifying is that it comes with the annihilation of memory and personal identity, to the extent that you eventually are unable to recognize even your loved ones. You end up as an empty shell of your former self.
When thinking about AD it is important to appreciate that AD and dementia are not one and the same thing. AD, which accounts for about 60 percent of dementia cases, causes problems with memory, language, and reasoning. It is characterized by the accumulation of deposits made up of a protein amyloid-β between, and tangles of another protein known as tau both between and within, brain cells. In describing AD it is important to distinguish “characterized by” from “caused by” because, as we will see, there is still some doubt here.
Major efforts are being undertaken to quantify seismic hazard and risk due to production-induced earthquakes in the Groningen gas field as the basis for rational decision-making about mitigation measures. An essential element is a model to estimate surface ground motions expected at any location for each earthquake originating within the gas reservoir. Taking advantage of the excellent geological and geophysical characterisation of the field and a growing database of ground-motion recordings, models have been developed for predicting response spectral accelerations, peak ground velocity and ground-motion durations for a wide range of magnitudes. The models reflect the unique source and travel path characteristics of the Groningen earthquakes, and account for the inevitable uncertainty in extrapolating from the small observed magnitudes to potential larger events. The predictions of ground-motion amplitudes include the effects of nonlinear site response of the relatively soft near-surface deposits throughout the field.
The mass balance of polythermal ice masses is critically dependent on the proportion of surface-generated meltwater that subsequently refreezes in the snowpack and firn. In order to quantify this effect and to characterize its spatial variability, we measured near-surface (<10 m) snow and firn densities at an elevation of ~1945ma.s.l. in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet in spring and autumn 2004. Results indicate that local snowpack depth above the previous end-of-summer 2003 melt surface increased by ±5% (7.6 cm) from spring to autumn while, over the same period, snowpack density increased by >26%, resulting in a 32% increase in net accumulation. This ‘seasonal densification’ increased at lower elevations, rising to 47% 10 km closer to the ice-sheet margin at 1860ma.s.l. Density/depth profiles from nine sites within 1 km2 at ~1945ma.s.l. reveal complex stratigraphies that change over short spatial scales and seasonally. We conclude that estimates of mass-balance change cannot be calculated solely from observed changes in surface elevation, but that near-surface densification must also be considered. However, predicting spatial and temporal variations in densification may not be straightforward. Further, the development of complex firn-density profiles both masks discernible annual layers in the near-surface firn and ice stratigraphy and is likely to introduce error into radar-derived estimates of surface elevation.
The study aims to assess whether supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) can reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in New Zealand (NZ) (Wellington and Auckland). Pregnant women with a personal or partner history of atopic disease were randomised at 14–16 weeks’ gestation to receive HN001 (6×109 colony-forming units) (n 212) or placebo (n 211) daily. GDM at 24–30 weeks was assessed using the definition of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·1 mmol/l, or 1 h post 75 g glucose level at ≥10 mmol/l or at 2 h ≥8·5 mmol/l) and NZ definition (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l or 2 h post 75 g glucose at ≥9 mmol/l). All analyses were intention-to-treat. A total of 184 (87 %) women took HN001 and 189 (90 %) women took placebo. There was a trend towards lower relative rates (RR) of GDM (IADPSG definition) in the HN001 group, 0·59 (95 % CI 0·32, 1·08) (P=0·08). HN001 was associated with lower rates of GDM in women aged ≥35 years (RR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·81, P=0·009) and women with a history of GDM (RR 0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·66, P=0·004). These rates did not differ significantly from those of women without these characteristics. Using the NZ definition, GDM prevalence was significantly lower in the HN001 group, 2·1 % (95 % CI 0·6, 5·2), v. 6·5 % (95 % CI 3·5, 10·9) in the placebo group (P=0·03). HN001 supplementation from 14 to 16 weeks’ gestation may reduce GDM prevalence, particularly among older women and those with previous GDM.
Nicholas Nourse, social and local historian at the University of Bristol with a background in traditional and digital cartographies and in GIS.,
Peter Insole, the Principal Historic Environment Officer at Bristol City Council and a Research Associate at the University of Bristol.,
Julian Warren, City Archivist at Bristol Record Office.
CROWDSOURCING HAS BECOME an ‘in thing’ for scholars, librarians or archivists wishing to tag, transcribe or annotate almost any substantial archive or data collection. The principal advantage of crowdsourcing, as argued by Holley (2010, 2), is that work previously carried out by organizations and their paid staff can be more cheaply and more rapidly achieved by outsourcing tasks to volunteer members of the public who give freely of their time and effort. Economically this is an attractive proposition to information professionals thinking about using crowdsourcing, but, more than this, it encourages and facilitates the public in conducting humanities research for themselves, rather than being mere consumers of the same (Piccini and Insole, 2013, 34–5). This – and to have fun doing it – was our goal in creating the Enhancing Know Your Place project.
Enhancing Know Your Place has been just one part of a larger project, Know Your Bristol on the Move (OTM), in the city of Bristol, UK. Begun in the summer of 2013 and funded to run for 18 months, OTM was a response to a research funding opportunity with an embedded emphasis on digital humanities. One work package of OTM was proposed in which an existing digital archive of mostly early 20th-century postcard picture images were to be placed within another pre-existing platform, an online historical map display of the city of Bristol, Know Your Place (http://.maps. bristol.gov.uk/kyp/).
Know Your Place is an established website that allows visitors to explore Bristol's neighbourhoods through historic maps, images and linked information. Conceived and led by the principal Historic Environment officer in Bristol's Planning Department, the website was created in partnership with Bristol Record Office (BRO) and the City Council's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team, with funding from English Heritage. Launched in 2011, the map-based online resource provides access to a range of historic information, including historic maps and aerial surveys, photographs and illustrations from the city's archives and data from the Historic Environment Record (HER), a database of all known historical monuments and archaeological sites maintained by the local planning authority. Making use of the recent rapid developments in mapping and tracking Global Position System ‘pinpoint’ technologies, all the maps and aerial surveys are fully georeferenced, meaning that each map aligns perfectly with those arranged above and below.
Stonehenge is a site that continues to yield surprises. Excavation in 2009 added a new and unexpected feature: a smaller, dismantled stone circle on the banks of the River Avon, connected to Stonehenge itself by the Avenue. This new structure has been labelled ‘Bluestonehenge’ from the evidence that it once held a circle of bluestones that were later removed to Stonehenge. Investigation of the Avenue closer to Stonehenge revealed deep periglacial fissures within it. Their alignment on Stonehenge's solstitial axis (midwinter sunset–midsummer sunrise) raises questions about the early origins of this ritual landscape.
The assemblage of Neolithic cremated human remains from Stonehenge is the largest in Britain, and demonstrates that the monument was closely associated with the dead. New radiocarbon dates and Bayesian analysis indicate that cremated remains were deposited over a period of around five centuries from c. 3000–2500 BC. Earlier cremations were placed within or beside the Aubrey Holes that had held small bluestone standing stones during the first phase of the monument; later cremations were placed in the peripheral ditch, perhaps signifying the transition from a link between specific dead individuals and particular stones, to a more diffuse collectivity of increasingly long-dead ancestors.
New trends in crop breeding include analytical approaches to identify metabolic fingerprints that can be used for associations to the genetic background. The biochemical phenotype, as a result of plant endogenous factors and interaction with the environment, has the potential to increase the accuracy of forecasting regarding agronomical quality factors. In this study a metabolite profile analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was conducted on sets of seed material from sugar beet. One set represented high-performing varieties with a close genetic background and with a similar quality in terms of germination capacity. The second set contained seed lots from different genotypes comprising different germination capacities. By multivariate statistical analyses high variance in both sample sets was revealed. These data were further allocated to corresponding metabolite classes. It could be shown that an untargeted GC–MS approach has the power to resolve differences in the molecular phenotypes of related offspring lines. Metabolic profiles were found to correlate more to genotypic differences than to differences in the germination capacity.
DSM-5 contains substantial changes to eating disorder diagnoses. We examined
relative prevalence rates of DSM-IV and DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses
using Eating Disorder Examination–Questionnaire diagnostic algorithms in 117
community out-patients. DSM-5 criteria produced a reduction in combined
‘other specified feeding or eating disorder’ and ‘unspecified feeding or
eating disorder’ diagnoses from 46% to 29%, an increase in anorexia nervosa
diagnoses from 35% to 47%, the same number of bulimia nervosa diagnoses and
a 5% rate of binge eating disorder diagnoses.
Emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) is a rare and potentially life-saving intervention performed for trauma patients in extremis. EDT is rare at Canadian trauma centres because of our infrequent occurrence of penetrating trauma. This study was undertaken to evaluate outcomes at a Canadian level 1 trauma facility and compare survival to large published datasets. Also, we evaluated the appropriateness of an EDT performed at our centre based on published national guidelines.
Retrospective medical record review of all patients undergoing an EDT during their resuscitation in the emergency department. Records were identified using our trauma registry, and all charts were manually reviewed. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge.
Over a 20-year period, 58 EDTs were performed with 6 (10.3%) survivors. Patients undergoing an EDT secondary to penetrating trauma had the highest survival (5 of 24 patients or 20.8% survival) compared to patients undergoing an EDT for blunt trauma (1 of 34 patients or 2.9% survival). Patients undergoing an EDT who had not suffered cardiac arrest represented the group with the highest survival rate (3 of 6 patients or 50% survival). The majority of EDTs (79.3%) were indicated, and no patient undergoing an EDT survived if it was performed outside of published guidelines.
Survival following an EDT in our small, regional trauma centre is consistent with survival rates from larger published datasets. An EDT should continue to be performed under accepted clinical indications.
Our team is developing an optically-based smart monitoring system prototype targeting batteries for advanced battery applications such as hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). The system concept envisions fiber optic (FO) sensors embedded within Lithium (Li)-ion batteries to measure parameters indicative of cell state in conjunction with our low-cost, compact optical wavelength-shift detection technology and intelligent algorithms to enable effective real-time performance management and optimized battery design. Towards these goals, we have successfully made functional prototypes of Li-ion pouch cells with FO sensors embedded within the electrode stack during cell fabrication. The strong, interesting signals from these FO sensors obtained over charge-discharge cycles offer valuable information and features to enable more accurate cell state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimation, and better understand cell electrochemical and aging processes. This paper presents initial results from these prototype cells and compares the results from internal FO signals to earlier results reported by our team on purely external configurations where the FO sensors were attached to the cell skin.
In this paper, an approach to differentiate between various dielectric threat objects in security applications is investigated. The scattering information in form of the Sinclair matrix of relevant scenarios is gained from a fully polarimetric, synthetic aperture radar. Both monostatic and multistatic array configurations are examined. A possible polarimetric calibration procedure is presented. The radar data are processed with the H-α decomposition algorithm. The H-α scattering characteristics of threat objects are analyzed in terms of a weighted averaging. It is shown that an object classification is possible even for threat objects conceiled under thick layers of clothing. Measurement results are presented to illustrate the topic.
The montane inselbergs of northern Mozambique have been comparatively little-studied, yet recent surveys have shown they have a rich biodiversity with numerous endemic species. Here we present the main findings from a series of scientific expeditions to one of these inselbergs, Mt Mabu, and discuss the conservation implications. Comprehensive species lists of plants, birds, mammals and butterflies are presented. The most significant result was the discovery of a c. 7,880 ha block of undisturbed rainforest, most of it at medium altitude (900–1,400 m), a forest type that is not well represented elsewhere. It is possibly the largest continuous block of this forest type in southern Africa. To date, 10 new species (plants, mammals, reptiles and butterflies) have been confirmed from Mt Mabu, even though sampling effort for most taxonomic groups has been low. The species assemblages indicate a relatively long period of isolation and many species found are at the southern limit of their range. Conservationists are now faced with the challenge of how best to protect Mt Mabu and similar mountains in northern Mozambique, and various ways that this could be done are discussed.
Emergency department (ED) patients with symptoms of cardiac ischemia often require a second cardiac troponin (cTn) measurement to rule out non–ST elevation myocardial infarction. We measured the total turnaround time and the component event times following the ordering of the second cTn level to ED discharge to identify root causes of delays.
We reviewed a random sample of ED discharges following a second normal cTn measurement and recorded associated event times. The central tendency of time intervals is reported as median and mean number of minutes with interquartile ranges (IQRs) and 95% confidence intervals, respectively.
From 9,656 eligible cases, we randomly selected 226 for data collection. The median number of minutes for each event are as follows: from ordering the second cTn measurement to the time of ED discharge was 90 minutes (IQR 65–120); for blood collection from the time the collection was ordered for was 0 minutes (IQR 212–0); from blood collection to the time the blood was transported to the laboratory was 9 minutes (IQR 2–19); laboratory process duration was 44 minutes (IQR 39–52); from when the results were available to the time the patient was discharged was 30 minutes (IQR 15–52).
For ED patients discharged following two normal cTn levels, the laboratory processing time and time from the result being available to the time of ED discharge represent the longest modifiable time periods to reduce ED length of stay.
Our field of study was for a long time referred as industrial relations or labour relations, and in Australia these designations remained unchallenged until the early 1980s, when employer organisations – particularly the then newly formed Business Council of Australia (BCA) and later right-wing think tanks, such as the HR Nicholls Society – challenged what they regarded as the anachronistic and obstructionist collectivist/class conflict paradigm of the ‘industrial relations club’ (Stone 2006). In Australia, possibly the most influential and coherent critique was that provided under the auspices of the Business Council of Australia (BCA) (1989). The BCA posited a model of employee relations that looked very much like an Australian version of strategic human resources management (SHRM) (Beer et al. 1984), and this led the BCA to advance two key propositions: first, that the key to enterprise success is in finding competitive advantage; and second, that in the relationship between employer and employees, there is no room for third parties. In other words, in employment regulation unions, industrial tribunals – and even employer associations – were a distraction, or at worst an interference. While the term ‘employee relations’ continues to have currency in the Australian academic literature, its usage does not imply endorsement of a particular reform agenda; rather, it emphasises the shift in focus to the employment relationship. In Australia more recently, the term ‘workplace relations’ has emerged to describe the changing field of study to which this book is devoted – for example, issues associated with monitoring and surveillance and employee voice are very much workplace relations issues rather than institutional aspects of the workplace in the twenty-first century. Significantly, the term ‘workplace relations’ has also found favour with both of the major political parties.