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The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
This article deals with the trade of local merchandise in Santiago's district (Corregimiento) from 1773 to 1778, based on tributary sources. It contributes to the debate on the organization of the colonial internal market. The main traded merchandise, which represented about 80% of Chilean exports, came from the cattle exploitation that was developed in the haciendas around Santiago, whose cattle stocks were complemented from neighboring provinces in the Andes. The largest destination of this trade, in which big merchants acted together with a thousand minor merchants, were the retail channels and the artisan sectors supplying the population of Santiago. The impulse of this demand on the domestic market was so dynamic that it shows a degree of regional autonomy higher than what it is traditionally assumed for the Chilean economy in the late colonial period.
The paper shows the connections between some importance indices for the components in an engineering coherent system and the performance of the system obtained when a redundancy mechanism is applied to a specific component. A copula approach is used to model the dependency among the components. This approach includes the popular case of independent components. Under some assumptions, it is proved that if component i is more important than component j, then the system obtained by applying a redundancy procedure to the ith component is better, under different stochastic criteria, than that obtained with the jth component. These results can be applied to several redundancy mechanisms. A new importance index is defined to study active redundancies. Some illustrative examples are provided.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
Polyphenols are a wide family of phytochemicals present in diverse foods. They might play a role in cancer development and progression. In vivo and in vitro studies have suggested beneficial properties and potential mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate the association between total and main classes of polyphenol intake and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project – a prospective Mediterranean cohort study. We included 10 713 middle-aged, Spanish female university graduates. Polyphenol intake was derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food consumption data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Women with self-reported BC were asked to return a copy of their medical report for confirmation purposes; death certificates were used for fatal cases. Cox models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between tertiles (T) of polyphenol intake and BC. After 10·3 years of median follow-up, 168 probable incident BC cases were identified, out of which 100 were confirmed. We found no association between polyphenol intake and the overall BC risk. Nevertheless, we observed a significant inverse association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk for postmenopausal women, either for probable or only for confirmed cases (HRT3 v. T1 0·31 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·77; Ptrend=0·010)). Also, phenolic acid intake was inversely associated with postmenopausal BC. In summary, we observed no significant association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk. Despite a low number of incident BC cases in our cohort, higher total polyphenol intake was associated with a lower risk of postmenopausal BC.
Traditionally the vulnerability of threatened species to extinction has been assessed by studying their environment, genetics and population dynamics. A more comprehensive understanding of the factors promoting or limiting the long-term persistence of threatened species could be achieved by conducting an analysis of their functional responses to changing environments, their ecological interactions, and their role in ecosystem functioning. These less traditional research areas can be unified in a trait-based approach, a recent methodological advance in ecology that is being used to link individual-level functions to species, community and ecosystem processes to provide mechanistic explanations of observed patterns, particularly in changing environments. We illustrate how trait-based information can be translated into well-defined conservation strategies, using the example of Dioon sonorense, an Endangered cycad endemic to north-western Mexico. Scientific information yielded by trait-based research, coupled with existing knowledge derived from well-established traditional approaches, could facilitate the development of more integrative conservation strategies to promote the long-term persistence of individual threatened species. A comprehensive database of functional traits of threatened species would be of value in assisting the implementation of the trait-based approach.
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat–parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host–bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host–bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat–streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat–fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.
Recently the use of nanomaterials for the diagnosis and detection of malignant diseases has increased due to the versatility and properties of these nanostructures. For this work 60 nm commercial gold nanoparticles (TED PELLA inc.) and Nanostars manufactured by chemical synthesis (precursor reagent: HAuCl4, cationic surfactant: CTAB) of 117 nm were used for coating. Malachite green Isotyocianate (MGITC), mPEG-SH and ortho-pyridyldisulfide-polyethylene glycol-N-succinimidyl propionate (OPSS-PEG-NHS) was used. A SERS active nanoparticle complex was obtained by addition of a solution of MGITC to the gold nanoparticles colloidal solution in a 1:6 ratio. Later, an mPEG-SH solution was added to the mix. The nanoparticle-MGITC-mPEG-SH complex stability was revised using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and a JEOL JEM 1000 transmission electron microscope. The SERS spectra were registered with a Raman Thermoscientific DXR microscopy system. Amplified bands associated with OPSS-PEG-NHS were identified in 389, 622, 859, 929, 1080, 1283, 1360, 1443, 1490 and 1450 cm-1. The results indicate that through this methodology it is possible to identify gold nanomaterials coated with polymer through the Raman technique. In addition, greater amplification is observed with the use of nanostars compared to gold spheres. Finally, these nanomaterials are available for the marking of specific membrane for the study of different types of cancer by the SERS technique.
The effects of Ag nanoparticles on microorganisms and the antimicrobial mechanism has recently been validated for different microbiological strains, as well as their cytotoxic effect in in vitro cellular models. In this work we report the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using the extract of Eichhornia crassipes as reducing agent, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity with Escherichia coli. The morphology, size and inhibition properties of the nanoparticles as a function of the reduction time in the chemical synthesis were analyzed. The characterization was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles with average diameters of 40 nm ± 10 nm were obtained and their antimicrobial activity with higher inhibition in Escherichia coli was recorded with the nanoparticle samples obtained at 120 min. These results suggest that Ag nanoparticles can be used as effective growth inhibitors in various microorganisms, making them applicable to various medical devices and antimicrobial control systems by modifying their concentration.
Due to its excellent optical properties, gold nanomaterials with anisotropic morphology are playing an important role in biomedical applications, specifically in the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) technique for biological assays. In this work, we verified the behavior of the star shape nanoparticle peaks obtained by chemical synthesis (precursor reactant: HAuCl4, cationic surfactant: CTAB) and whose peaks were formed from the different concentrations of gold seeds (55, 65, 75 and 85 ul) which were added to the total solution (5.275 ml). The shape and size of the nanoparticles was verified with a Hitachi S-5500 microscope with a BF & DF SEM / STEM detector, and for the diameter distribution (hydrodynamic) was carried out by the dynamic light distribution technique with a Malvern DLS system Zetasizer Nano ZS. Particle sizes (peak-to-peak considering) were obtained with variations from 107 to 166 nm. The results suggest adding 75 ul of gold seeds to obtain uniform nanostars with well defined peaks. These gold nano-stars could be applied for identification of specific membrane markers for the study of different types of cancer by the SERS technique.
Nine species of the gall-associated doryctine genus Allorhogas Gahan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are described from Brazil (A. clidemiae Martínez and Zaldívar-Riverón new species, A. granivorus Zaldívar-Riverón and Martínez new species, A. mineiro Zaldívar-Riverón and Martínez new species, and A. vulgaris Zaldívar-Riverón and Martínez new species) and Costa Rica (A. brevithorax Zaldívar-Riverón and Martínez new species, A. pallidus Martínez and Zaldívar-Riverón new species, A. psychotria Zaldívar-Riverón and Martínez new species, A. punctatus Martínez and Zaldívar-Riverón new species, and A. tico Martínez and Zaldívar-Riverón new species). We provide host plant records for the described species, including information that reveals that at least three of them feed on seeds. Allorhogas granivorus had previously been confirmed to represent a natural enemy of the invasive weed Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae). Updated keys to the species of Allorhogas from Brazil and Costa Rica are provided.
A 1.1-m reflectarray antenna has been designed, manufactured, and tested to fulfill the requirements of a satellite antenna in Ku-band that provides South-American coverage in Tx and Rx. The reflectarray cells consist of four dipoles for each polarization in two dielectric layers, selected because of their simplicity and high performance. The dipole dimensions are optimized in all the reflectarray cells to accomplish the prescribed radiation patterns, by iteratively calling an analysis routine based on method of moments in spectral domain and local periodicity. The measured radiation patterns of the manufactured antenna have been satisfactorily compared with simulations and with a three-layer reflectarray previously designed, manufactured, and tested for the same mission.
Endemic insular species are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic threats. The fish-eating bat Myotis vivesi is restricted mainly to the islands of the Gulf of California in Mexico and although several aspects of its biology have been studied there are no recent accounts of its current distribution. We conducted several expeditions during 2001–2016 to verify the current geographical distribution of this bat, and to record the presence of introduced predators. We identified the localities in which maternity colonies occur, estimated the size of the bat population on Partida Norte Island in 2003, and monitored bat presence on this island during 2004–2016. We found fish-eating bats on 36 islands and maternity colonies on 19 islands. Introduced rats Rattus rattus or cats Felis catus were captured on seven islands where the bats were present, and on five islands where they were absent. We estimated a population of c. 30,000 fish-eating bats in May 2003 and we confirmed the species’ presence on Partida Norte Island during 2004–2016. Based on the information compiled from our surveys and previous studies, we discuss the adequacy of the species’ current categorization as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, and its conservation status conferred by Mexican conservation authorities.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
Cultural background is an important variable influencing neuropsychological performance. Multinational projects usually involve gathering data from participants from different countries and/or different cultures. Little is known about the influence of culture on neuropsychological testing results in children and especially in European children. The objectives of this study were to compare neuropsychological performance of children from six European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland and Spain) using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and to apply a statistical procedure to reduce the influence of country/cultural differences in neuropsychological performance. As expected, the results demonstrated differences in neuropsychological performance among children of the six countries involved. Cultural differences remained after adjusting for other confounders related to neuropsychological execution, such as sex, type of delivery, maternal age, gestational age and maternal educational level. Differences between countries disappeared and influence of culture was considerably reduced when standardised scores by country and sex were used. These results highlight the need for developing specific procedures to compare neuropsychological performance among children from different cultures to be used in multicentre studies.