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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The distributions of discrete, continuous and conditional multiple window scan statistics are studied. The finite Markov chain imbedding technique has been applied to obtain the distributions of fixed window scan statistics defined from a sequence of Bernoulli trials. In this manuscript the technique is extended to compute the distributions of multiple window scan statistics and the exact powers for multiple pulse and Markov dependent alternatives. An application in blood component quality monitoring is provided. Numerical results are also given to illustrate our theoretical results.
A surface vibrational study of a stearic acid/silver (Ag) flake system is reported. The chemical nature of this interfacial system was examined with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a function of sample temperature. The SERS spectrum from the room temperature flake exhibited vibrational peaks that were attributed to a carboxylate species bound to the Ag substrate through the oxygen atoms in the terminal end group. The surface species remained stable to temperatures up to 150 °C, above which a partial decomposition to an amorphous carbon layer was observed. In addition to the Raman studies, an IR‐visible sum‐frequency (SFG) measurement from a stearic acid/smooth Ag substrate proved a useful probe of the C‐H stretches in the terminal methyl group of the molecule. The SFG signal from the asymmetric C‐H stretch in the methyl group exhibited a temperature dependence that was similar to the SERS response from the surface carboxylate group, namely, a marked and irreversible decrease in signal levels for temperatures above 150 °C.
The competitive adsorption of lung surfactant (LS) and albumin at the air-liquid interface and the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to mediate LS adsorption are analyzed using pressure area isotherms and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD). The addition of albumin drastically reduces the amount of LS on the interface and slightly increases the LS lattice spacing. The addition of PEG restores the characteristic LS peaks, yielding a slightly more compact lattice. The scattering results are consistent with recent work which proposed that albumin creates a physical barrier which eliminates LS adsorption and that PEG enhances LS adsorption but does not significantly change LS surface ordering.
The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of cancer in counties affected by Hurricane Katrina using population-based cancer registry data, and to discuss issues related to cancer patients who have been displaced by disasters.
The cancer burden was assessed in 75 counties in Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi that were designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as eligible for individual and public assistance. Data from the National Program of Cancer Registries were used to determine three-year average annual age-adjusted incidence rates and case counts during the diagnosis years 2000–2002 for Louisiana and Alabama. Expected rates and counts for the most-affected counties in Mississippi were estimated by direct, age-specific calculation using the 2000–2002 county level populations and the site-, sex-, race-, and age-specific cancer incidence rates for Louisiana.
An estimated 23,549 persons with a new diagnosis of cancer in the past year resided in the disaster-affected counties. Fifty-eight percent of the cases were cancers of the lung/bronchus, colon/rectum, female breast, and prostate. Eleven of the top 15 cancer sites by sex and black/white race in disaster counties had >50% of cases diagnosed at the regional or distant stage.
Sizable populations of persons with a recent cancer diagnosis were potentially displaced by Hurricane Katrina. Cancer patients required special attention to access records in order to confirm diagnosisand staging, minimize disruption in treatment, and ensure coverage of care. Cancer registry data can be used to provide disaster planners and clinicians with estimates of the number of cancer patients, many of whom maybe undergoing active treatment.
The Committee on Chronotherapeutics was recently formed by the International Society for Affective Disorders (ISAD), which has asked us to provide a consensus review of chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders. We consider these non-pharmaceutical, biologically based therapies to be potentially powerful adjuvants ready for clinical application. We also stress the need for additional studies, both in-patient and out-patient, to broaden the evidence base for indications and efficacy.
Smooth, continuous TiB2 films were deposited on TiB2−AlN composites and Si substrates by sputtering in high vacuum. Excellent adhesion between films and substrates was indicated; no film delamination was induced by Vickers indentation at high loads. Analyses by secondary ion mass and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies showed that the films were of high purity and contained H, C, O, N, and Na elements as trace impurities. Quantitative depth profile by the elastic recoil detection (ERD) nuclear scattering technique using 30 MeV 35Cl beam revealed that the Ti/B atomic ratio was very close to 0.5 while the 10B/11B isotopic ratio was 0.250.