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Brain imaging studies have shown altered amygdala activity during emotion processing in children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) compared to typically developing children and adolescents (TD). Here we aimed to assess whether aggression-related subtypes (reactive and proactive aggression) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits predicted variation in amygdala activity and skin conductance (SC) response during emotion processing.
We included 177 participants (n = 108 cases with disruptive behaviour and/or ODD/CD and n = 69 TD), aged 8–18 years, across nine sites in Europe, as part of the EU Aggressotype and MATRICS projects. All participants performed an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging task.
Differences between cases and TD in affective processing, as well as specificity of activation patterns for aggression subtypes and CU traits, were assessed. Simultaneous SC recordings were acquired in a subsample (n = 63). Cases compared to TDs showed higher amygdala activity in response to negative faces (fearful and angry) v. shapes. Subtyping cases according to aggression-related subtypes did not significantly influence on amygdala activity; while stratification based on CU traits was more sensitive and revealed decreased amygdala activity in the high CU group. SC responses were significantly lower in cases and negatively correlated with CU traits, reactive and proactive aggression.
Our results showed differences in amygdala activity and SC responses to emotional faces between cases with ODD/CD and TD, while CU traits moderate both central (amygdala) and peripheral (SC) responses. Our insights regarding subtypes and trait-specific aggression could be used for improved diagnostics and personalized treatment.
Maternal obesity (MO) during pregnancy and lactation leads to maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction. Recent research has suggested that probiotics might be a novel approach to counteract these unwanted MO effects. The aim of this research was to analyze the impact of Leuconostoc SD23, a probiotic isolated from aguamiel (traditional Mexican drink), on MO metabolism in rats at the end of lactation (21 days). From weaning through lactation, control female Wistar rats (C) ate chow (5% fat) or high-energy obesogenic diet (MO; 25% fat). Half the C and MO mothers received a daily dose (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) of probiotic orally, control with probiotic (CP) and MO with probiotic (MOP), 1 month before mating and through pregnancy and lactation. Histological analyses of the liver, white adipose tissue and small intestine, body composition, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin were determined in mothers at the end of lactation. Maternal weight during pregnancy was greater in MO than C mothers, but similar at the end of lactation. Probiotic intervention had no effect on maternal weight. However, at the end of lactation, percentage of body fat was higher in MO than C, CP, and MOP. Serum glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and triglycerides were higher in MO versus C, CP, and MOP. MO small intestine villus height was higher versus MOP, C, and CP. Leuconostoc SD23 did not present adverse effects in C. Conclusions: maternal administration of Leuconostoc SD23 has beneficial effects on maternal metabolism, which holds possibilities for preventing adverse offspring metabolic programming.
Insects in the subfamily Ischnorhininae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopidae), known as spittlebugs or froghoppers, are mainly distributed in the Neotropical region. A few genera include pest species of economic relevance, including Prosapia Fennah, 1949. Two new species from Mexico and Costa Rica are now described for this genus, and a key to species is proposed for the P. inferens (Walker, 1858) species group.
In mass customization, software configurators enable novice end-users to design customized products and services according to their needs and preferences. However, traditional configurators hardly provide an engaging experience while avoiding the burden of choice. We propose a Design Participation Model to facilitate navigating the design space, based on two modules. Modeler enables designers to create customizable designs as parametric models, and Navigator subsequently permits novice end-users to explore these designs. While most parametric designs support direct manipulation of low-level features, we propose interpolation features to give customers more flexibility. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of such interpolation features into Navigator and its user interface. To assess our approach, we designed and performed user experiments to test and compare Modeler and Navigator, thus providing insights for further developments of our approach. Our results suggest that barycentric interpolation between qualitative parameters provides a more easily understandable interface that empowers novice customers to explore the design space expeditiously.
En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) databases, scientific publications articles, according to The PRISMA Statement, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 27 studies were included according to the established criteria. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection varied widely, from 0·1 to 73·1%, based on Kato-Katz technique. Of the identified studies, 42·9% were performed in the state of Minas Gerais, and 33·3% were performed in the northeast region of Brazil. We identified sex, age, education level, family income, contact with water and the presence of the intermediate host snail as major risk factors associated with infection. The meta-analysis summarized a high prevalence rate pooled for Schistosoma mansoni. On the other hand, the analysis of the subgroup showed a highly significant reduction of the prevalence rate after control measures. The epidemiological factors evidenced in the studies show the influence of environmental and social conditions on the occurrence of schistosomiasis.
To determine the association between the use of opioids and benzodiazepines and the risk of falls with hip fracture in populations older than 65 years in Colombia.
A case-control study with patients older than 65 years with diagnosis of hip fracture. Two controls were obtained per case. The drugs dispensed in the previous 30 days were identified. Sociodemographic, diagnostic, pharmacological (opioids and benzodiazepines), and polypharmacy variables were analyzed. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk of fall with hip fracture while using these drugs.
We included 287 patients with hip fractures and 574 controls. There was a female predominance (72.1%) and a mean age of 82.4 ± 8.0 years. Of the patients, 12.7% had been prescribed with opioids and 4.2% with benzodiazepines in the previous month. The adjusted multivariate analysis found that using opioids (OR:4.49; 95%CI:2.72–7.42) and benzodiazepines (OR:3.73; 95%CI:1.60–8.70) in the month prior to the event was significantly associated with a greater probability of suffering a fall with hip fracture.
People who are taking opioids and benzodiazepines have increased risk for hip fracture in Colombia. Strategies to educate physicians regarding the pharmacology of older adults should be strengthened.
Using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations is possible to study the homogeneity of deformation in the Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process. In this work an investigation about the influence of a modified die on strain distribution in an ecaped Al6060 alloy was carried out. Due to that, tensile stress occurs in the vicinity of upper surface of the specimen in the severe plastic deformation zone, which increases the cracking and fracture tendency of the specimen and impedes further ECAP processing, the conventional ECAP die was modified to eliminate the tensile stress and enhance the compressive stress in the severe plastic deformation zone and reducing the cracking and fracture tendency of the specimen. Finite element analysis demonstrated that the stress state changes from tensile to strongly compressive when using the modified die. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantages/disadvantages of the modified ECAP die and processing conditions.
The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.
Were synthesized four new hybrid hardener agents type amino tertiary functionalized with allyl groups from : l, 6-Hexanediamine, Diethylenetriamine, Trietilentriamine and Tris (2-aminoethyl) amine, using the basic nucleophilic substitution mechanism, replacing bromide by amino tertiary group in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide as phase transfer agent, producing allyl amine corresponding: ALA-4, ALA-5, ALA-6 and TRIS respectively, which were evaluated as a hardening of epoxy resin DGEBA through photopolymerization process by UV ligth curing, adding a 10, 20 and 40% molar percentage of hybrid materials and the thiol corresponding to carry out the thiol-ene reaction (TMP TMP, PTKMP) with DMPA as initiator. The resinic materials obtained, were evaluated by the technique of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at a heating rate of 5° C/min in a range from - 50° C to 150° C in nitrogen atmosphere. The formulations with hybrid hardening agent ALA 4- 20% -PTKMP and TRIS 10% -PTKMP were the materials with modulus 2289, 2971 Mpa and tgs of 102,103°C, respectively.
Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Mexico, a middle-income country, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children. Merida is the most populated and growing city in southern Mexico with a mixed Mayan and non-Maya population. Local urbanization and access to industrialized foods have impacted the eating habits and physical activity of children, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to contribute to the existing literature on the global prevalence of overweight and obesity and examined the association of parental income, ethnicity and nutritional status with body mass index (BMI) and height in primary school children in Merida. The heights and weights of 3243 children aged 6–12 from sixteen randomly selected schools in the city were collected between April and December 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the prevalence of BMI and height categories (based on WHO reference values) by ethnicity and income levels. Of the total students, 1648 (50.9%) were overweight or obese. Stunting was found in 227 children (7%), while 755 (23.3%) were defined as having short stature. Combined stunting and overweight/obesity was found in 301 students (9.3%) and twelve (0.4%) were classified as stunted and of low weight. Having two Mayan surnames was inversely associated with having adequate height (OR=0.69, p<0.05) and the presence of two Maya surnames in children increased the odds of short stature and stunting. Children from lower income families had twice the odds of being stunted and obese. Overweight, obesity and short stature were frequent among the studied children. A significant proportion of Meridan children could face an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and its associated negative economic and social outcomes unless healthier habits are adopted. Action is needed to reduce the prevalence of obesity among southern Mexican families of all ethnic groups, particularly those of lower income.
The chemical synthesis of the copolymers poly(3-HT-co-EDOT-co-fluorene) and poly(3-HT-co-EDOT-co-TDR1) is reported. The first copolymer is derived of 3-hexylthiophene (3-HT), 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and 2,2'- (9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl) bisthiophene (fluorene). The second copolymer is derived of 3-hexylthiophene (3-HT), 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and (E)-2-(ethyl(4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)phenyl)amino)ethyl 2-(thiophen-3-yl)acetate (TDR1). Their physicochemical characterization by 1H NMR, FT-IR, DSC-TGA, GPC, UV-vis, cyclic voltammetry was carried out. These copolymers combine the high electron density and low oxidation potential of EDOT with the high charge mobility and processability of 3-HT. These are candidates for applications as active or barrier layer in electronic devices (bulk heterojuntion organic solar cells) or as functional membranes (e.g., sensors).
Hyperbranched structures containing pyrrole units were obtained from ortho-, meta- and para-diaminodiphenyldiacetylenes as AB2 type monomers by one-step polymerization.
The para-hyperbranched compound was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Microscopy studies identify two phases. The first is the insoluble one which gives origin to flake type structures. The second is acetone soluble phase, which generated crystalline structure manifesting in optic anisotropy and rhomboids and triangles dendrimeric structures.
Novel hyperbranched molecules containing pyrrole units were obtained from ortho-, meta- and para-diaminodiphenyldiacetylenes, as AB2 type monomers by one-step polymerization. Diacetylenic fragments reacted with terminal amino groups in the presence of copper chloride to give pyrrole units. Diaminodiphenyldiacetylene monomers have been synthesized from ethynilanilines in three steps. The novel monomers and hyperbranched molecules were characterized by NMR, IR and thermal analysis. Some conductivity proofs were also carried out and this behavior was assessed.
The electronic behavior of some of these molecules was studied by means of theoretical methods. DFT optimization processes were carried out for three structures derived from the generation growing. There are at least two conformational isomers of the structure (meta- and para-) which show conductivity properties, the meta-isomer shows semiconductor nature but this species is hard to modeling because the steric hindrances cause optimization problems and indeed the third generation species was not achieved. In other context, the para-isomer allows the calculation of three generations and shows clearly a tendency to narrow the energy gap between the frontier orbitals but besides the behavior of the HOMO-1 seems reinforce the conductivity phenomenon.
Recent discoveries have shown the presence of several shipwrecks and historical pieces submerged in the seacoast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Within these remains, it is common to found objects manufactured in copper alloys that were part of the construction system of the vessel. For the present study, different surface analysis techniques were applied to tubular copper alloy objects collected in the wreck “El Tejas”. The metallographic study allowed us to know not only the microstructure but also features over its manufacturing technique, as an example of nineteenth-century handmade production. SEM, EDX and XRF techniques allowed us know the elemental composition and establish the mechanisms of degradation of the different copper alloys in the seabed and evaluated a preservation method that consist on removing chlorine compounds by cleaning with pressure steam of distilled water.
It is well known that Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles have better performance in catalytic processes compared to their counterpart pure clusters. The improvement in their catalytic properties has been attributed to a kind of synergy between the gold and silver atoms that has not been fully understood. Unlike pure clusters, there are very few studies on the catalytic behavior of the Au-Ag binary nanoparticles. From the theoretical point of view, in the subnanometer regimen, the bimetallic Au-Ag clusters present a challenging problem, since by combining the different gold and silver relativistic effects, a variety of skeletal geometric structures and homotopic distributions are obtained. In particular, pure gold has favorable planar structure even up to 16 atoms, while silver begins to favor 3D arrangements from 5-7 atoms. This dissimilar behavior produces a diverse population of 2D and 3D coexisting binary clusters, whose properties strongly depend of the Au/Ag mixing ratio. In this work we use the relativistic approach ZORA-DFT to model the AunAgm (with 4 ≤ (n + m) ≤ 12) binary nanoclusters in selected proportions (1:1, 3:1, 5:1) in the gas-phase and we study their reactivity from the descriptors based in the condensed Fukui indexes obtained from an NBO electronic population analysis.
We establish that the maximal operator and the Littlewood–Paley g-function associated with the heat semigroup defined by multidimensional Bessel operators are of weak type (1, 1). We also prove that Riesz transforms in the multidimensional Bessel setting are of strong type (p, p), for every 1 < p < ∞, and of weak type (1, 1).