This is the first study reporting the population status and reproductive biology of the Eleonora’s Falcon in Algeria. To determine the status, nest site selection, and breeding parameters, data were collected at Chetaïbi, north-east Algeria in 2010 and 2012. During this period, the number of breeding pairs decreased from 130 to 100, which represents an annual decrease rate of 12.29%. The mean clutch size was 2.6 ± 0.5 (n = 90) and 2.9 ± 0.4 (n = 34) in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Clutches displayed a low rate of hatching (56% and 41%) and productivity decreased from 0.8 chicks/nest in 2010 to 0.4 chicks/nest in 2012. Breeding outcome and productivity were negatively related to sun exposure and were weakly linked to hatching date in 2012 but not in 2010. Although fluctuations in population size have been reported across the species’ breeding range, our results suggest that the Algerian population of Eleonora’s Falcon is experiencing a sharp decline in recent times that also involves the near extinction of a small neighbouring colony. Apart from the effect of environmental factors on breeding performance, this negative population trend is likely to be explained by increasing anthropogenic pressures associated with an upsurge of recreational activities on and around the island as well as the introduction of mammal predators. Active management across the country is urgently needed to mitigate such pressures and ensure the long-term persistence of a bird listed as a priority species for conservation.