Efficient and reliable assessments of cognitive treatment effects are essential for the comparative evaluation of procognitive effects of pharmacologic therapies. Yet, no studies have addressed the sensitivity and efficiency with which neurocognitive batteries evaluate cognitive abilities before and after treatment. Participants were primarily first episode schizophrenia patients who completed baseline (n = 367) and 12-week (n = 219) assessments with the BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness) neuropsychological batteries in a clinical trial comparing olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that performance on both batteries was characterized by a single factor of generalized cognitive deficit for both baseline performance and cognitive change after treatment. Both batteries estimated similar levels of change following treatment, although the BACS battery required half the administration time. Because a unitary factor characterized baseline cognitive abilities in early psychosis as well as cognitive change after treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications, short batteries such as the BACS may efficiently provide sufficient assessment of procognitive treatment effects with antipsychotic medications. Assessment of cognitive effects of adjunctive therapies targeting specific cognitive domains or impairments may require more extensive testing of the domains targeted to maximize sensitivity for detecting specific predicted cognitive outcomes. (JINS, 2008, 14, 209–221.)Presented in part at the annual International Neuropsychology Society meeting in Portland, OR, February 2007; and the 2007 International Congress for Schizophrenia Research in Colorado Springs, CO.